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Victorian Naturalist: 



ijfyld ^UitMtalfete' €ki of ttotoria. 

MAY, 1922, TO APRIL, 1923. 

1b0ll. BDitOl : MR. F. G. A. BARNARD, 

The Author of each Article is responsible for the facts and 

opinions recorded; 






Aboriginal Implements 
Bream Creek : Shell Mounds 
Broken Hill District, Map of 
Cast of Fossil Sea-Urchin - 
Eucalypt, A Tall - 
Grampians, Map of 
Gravel Pit, Studley Park - 
Spry, The late Mr. F. P. - 
Torquay : An Upraised Sea-Bed 
Torquay : Bird Rock and Cliffs 
Trees, Measurement of 


63, 64, rt5 

- 156 

- 132 

- 158 

- 169 


- 158 




169, 170, 171 


Page 12 — Note referring to errors in April (1022) Naturalist. 

Page 38, line 25—" Collected by Mr. E. H. Hatfield ll should 
follow " N.S.W." in line 28. 

Page CO, line 14— ' zoologist - ! should read "curator.' 1 

Page 97, line- 7 — For " Conospermum " read " Comesperntunt' 1 

Page 98, line 20 — For ■' D. corymbosum ll read " D. floribunda." 

Page 130, line 8— For '•' lygosid « read * iycosid.'- 1 

Page 148 — Correction of statement on page 82; 

Page 151, line 4 from bottom — For " markings u read " colour.' 1 


m Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX— No. I. MAY 4, 1922. No. 461 


The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Hall on Monday evening, ioth April, 1922, 

The president, Mr F. Chapman, A.L.S , occupied the '-chair, 
and about 70 members and visitors were present. 


A report of the visit to the Clifton Hill quarries on Saturday. 
•25t.l1 March, was given hjr the leader, Mr. F. Chapman.. A.L.S.. 
who said that the outing proved very pleasant, and that it 
provided a good opportunity for studying the geological features 
ot the volcanic rocks of the Melbourne district, 


On a ballot being taken, Miss G. E Davis, Elstenv.vick j Miss 
P. J. Griffiths, BA, 27 Grosvenor-street, Middle Brighton; 
and Miss M. Guest. 245 Latrobe-strcet, Melbourne, were duly 
elected member?, oi the Club, 


By Dr. Geo. Horno, V.D«, entitled " "Aboriginal Scrapers." 

The author gave an interesting account of the method of 
manufacture and the different kinds of scrapers used by the 
Australian aboriginals, comparing them with the flints of other 
parts of the world, of which he 'exhibited a very fine collection 
from various countries. The making of implements usually 
fell to the old men of the tribe, who exhibited considerable 
patience in their work ; yet when made they were not treasured 
as one would expect after so much labour. 

Some discussion ensued, in which, the chairman,. Dr. Sutton, 
Messrs. Kershaw. Keep, and Barnard took part. 

The chairman.. Mr. P. Chapman, said that the principal 
source of the basalt glass which the Victorian aboriginals valued 
so much, on account of its peculiar toughness and homogeneity, 
was probably at Bulla, wheie large deposits of tliis rock are 
to be found. 


Mr A D. Hardy, F.L.S., contributed a note on an occurrence 
which he had witnessed at Evelyn one day in December. His 
attention was attracted to a scuffling on a patch of cleared 
ground screened by bracken fei'n He thought, the Kookaburra, 
which he could see attempting to fly with a load, was raising 
and dropping a snake or lizard, but, being in doubt, went over 
to investigate, "when "Jack'' flew off, leaving the victim at 

2 field NtmvalnUi* Club— Proceedings. [v^'.xxxVx. 

about its last gasp on the ground. This proved to f>e a young 
rabbit, vviiich he subsequently found at the local store to 
Weigh kali a pound. He had niacin inquiries of the Vermin 
Destruction Department and of several experienced ornith- 
ologists, but could hear of no case- of a Kookaburra attacking 
a young tabbit. 

Mr. F. Keep said that during a lecent visit to Kalmma, 
Lakes 1 Entrance,, he met with a variegated form of the Hop 
Goodema, G. ovaia. in considerable quantities. This had a pleasing 
appearance, and might be worth cultivating as a gardes* shrub- 
Specimens were on exhibition for the benefit of those interested 


By Mr. C. Daley. F.L.S. — Scrapers, knives, &c, ochre, spear- 
polisher, from a kitchen midden at Elwood, near Brighton 

By Miss A. Fuller. — Zatnia Palm nuts, W.A. ; cotton seeds, 
&c. ; seeds of Nuytsia, Western Australian Christmas-bush ; 
seeds of Eucalyptus macrocarpa, £. pyriformis, E. Pveissiana, 
and E. t&ttafUf& - , Black-boy flower-stems; Western Australian 

By Mr. C. ]. Gabriel. — Specimens of all the Victorian species 
of "Mutton-fish" or "Ear Sheik " — viz., Haliotis albtcms, 
G. and T., H. nmvosa, Martvn, H. £mm<z. Eve.* H. vonicopora, 
Peron, and H> cyciobatcs, Peron. 

By Dr. G. Home, V.D. — A large series of aboriginal saapeis 
from Victoria, Tasmania, and Central Australia, also similar 
implements from other parts of tbe world for comparison, 

By Mr F, Keep. — Goodmia ovata. Hop Goodenia, from 
Kahmna, with variegated leaves. 

By Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S. (on behalf of Mr. A.J, William- 
son/ Dunolly). — Aboriginal stone axe, grooved, showing evidence 
of having been used as a hammer at both ends, found at 
M'Intyre's, near Rheola, Victoria ; aboriginal stone axe, grnuud, 
with two V-shaped transverse grooves, from Eastville, near 
Loddon, Eddhigton, Victoria. For National Museum. — Cast 
of double-headed stone hammer, from New South AVales ; large 
aboriginal stone axe, ground, measuring xz\ inches by 8£ inches, 
found in virgin scrub on bank of Liverpool Creek, 34 miles 
from, North Queensland, by S, Fitzgerald. 

By Mr. C. Oke. — Small beetles (under microscope) from Bel- 
grave excursion. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. — Fasciated growth of Tecoma mackenni, 
from his garden at South Yarra , also sample of stone used in 
large quantities fiftv vears ago fur producing It me from at Cave 
Hill, Lilydale. 

By Mr. L. Thorn.*— The larva; and perfect insects oi a Vic- 
torian, moth, Nutaxa fiavescens ; a rare Victorian Mountain 
Brown Butterfly, Oteixsmea coftem, taken on the top of Mount 

Wat] Pitid WfliwsW^ 1 Club—ProcMdinqs. 3 

Douna Buartg, 4^50 feet above sea-level . also two species of 
bones from Mounl Donna Buaug. 

By Mr. H. W. Whitraore, — Piece of bluestone (basalt) covered 
with vwanite_, from the Collingwood quarries. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting leirntnatcd 


Members and friends who visited thd above quarries on Satur- 
day, 25th March, found the afternoon very pleasant, the 
weather being cool and genial The lower part of the larger 
quarry -showed many interesting feature*,, and the bank of 
the old Merri Creek (of Pleistocene time) still showed the thick 
covering oi liver silt, with roots of Shrunk (C<tmaHnft) and 
perhaps other vegetation in situ. The bedrock seemed only 
Slightly hardened by contact where this occurred, but the eifect 
of the cooling on the lowei surface of the basalt had produced 
a thin seam of tachylyte or basalt glass. We had the advantage 
of the company of Mr. R. \V. Armitage, who secured for the 
members some good examples of this glassy condition of the 
lava from the contact of the Silurian mudstone on the Merri 
Creek, The name tachylytc, given by Breithaupt, is derived 
from two Greek components, meaning rapid dissolution,. and 
so named on account of the rapidity with which it undergoes 
fusion before the blow-pipe. The termination Ct lyte ; ' is not to 
be confused with "lite." ihe latter being derived from lithos, 
stone. The common zeolites were gathered by members, and 
the minerals included aragonite, ferrocaldte, niagnesate, viviamte, 
halloysitic clay, and possibly mesolite. In one instance a 
miniature cavern was noticed in the bJucstonc, which had a 
floor of ferrocalcite in process oi building up, much as stalag- 
mite occurs in the Buchan Caves, The cooled surfaces of the 
various lava streams, of which many are seen superposed in 
the quarry, were indicated by some very fine ropy structure. 
BomboidaJ weathering of the- massive blocks and the rough 
columnar structure, often radially arranged, were pointed out. 
In a pool in the floor of the quarry Mr. J. Stickland found a 
quantity of a very minute form of the protista (a link between 
plants and animals) of the genus Chlamydonwnas, as '.veil as the 
tubular tliaUusof the alga EnUt vtnotphu i probably allied to the 
species discovered at Burnley under similar conditions- The 
adjacent Men i Creek was next visited, where we had the op- 
portunity of examining some line examples of radial columnar 
jointing, basaltic pavement, and stratified mudstone, This con- 
cluded the programme of an instructive and enjoyable afternoon 
amongst the volcanic rocks of Melbourne. — P. Cuapman, 

By Chas. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., a^d H. B; WruiAMSON, F.L.S 

(7?carf ^'fi/air the Field Naturalists' Ckfb of Vittovia, i$ih Mtty. t 1937.} 

Part I.— PiiYsrdcRAPHiCAt am) General Notes, by C Daley, 


For many years, Iran the nutuie uf its geographical position 
and remoteness from large centres of population, the Gmco 
district was, of necessity, more- isolated than almost any part 
of Victoria; but with the extension of the railway to Orhost 
ledueing the distance irom railway communication, the rapid 
development in motor travelling, and the practical outcome 
of the series of motor reliability tests in the Alpine regions of 
Victoria, the disadvantages mentioned have been greatly 
minimised, At pleasant Brnthen (bracken or ferns), on J.he 
foothills above the rich spreading fields of maize that delight 
the eye, there is plain evidence that " the old order changeth,'' 
for, even, as horse-teams replaced the old bullock-teams in 
outback transport, so here in the mam street is a recently* 
introduced motor lorry which plies regularly from Bruthcn 
to Oraeo and Bcnamhva If its service prove effective, such 
motors will in time banish the useful six or eight-horse teams 
irom the road transport- The coach of a few years ago has 
already gone, and in its stead is the speedier and more prosaic 
rival installed, annihilating distance and facilitating inter- 

Our party of four, Messrs. Williamson, Hughes, Allen, and 
the writer, started early by motor, and after a few miles' 
journey through the hills regained the picturesque valley of the 
Tambo, along which for many miles the Omeo road runs. It 
would at any time be an interesting journey, but the favourable 
season increased the impression of its fertility. We glided in 
and out, past maiz£ fields on the flat, rich pastures where fat 
Hereford cattle grazed, over stony rises and steep pinches, 
past lonely steadings on river or creek. 

"The river course is usually fringed with high cliffs, often 
presenting in the bed the upturned edge of stratified or meta* 
morphic rocks, with hard intrusive masses of sLune, . At 
Tambo Crossing a road goes oft* north-west to Stirling, a small 
gold-mining centre. The genera! geological formation of thc 
Tambo Valley rocks- is metamorphic in character, with varying 
Cjranitic, Ordovician. unci Silurian formations in cont;ict or 
proximity. The western tributaries of the Tambo are mostly 
auriferous, arid the formation Otdovieian. Further up we 
come to Eusay, prettily situated in the fertile valley, with the 

* A map detailing this part of Victoria will be fouud in the Naturnhtf 
for January, 1913 (vol. xxvUi.. p. 72),— Ed. K»cJ. Nat. 

IJjjJjJ I Daley ANSj Williamson Whcris this Murray fttsrty. j 

mountains rising up on the eastern side. There is a quaint 
bridge and a ford over the stream ; and from every side to a 
typical country race meeting settlers were hastening. 

The I ambo Valley is fruitful m historical associations, being 
the original gateway into Gippsland, along which Angus 
M'Millan, nearly ninety . years ago, and afterwards Count 
St^lccki made their way to the Lakes, and ultimately to the 
coast — the latter at Western Port, the former at Port Albert. 
M'MillaTVs first cattle station was here, at Numblamunjie 
t * the place of blackfish "). afterwards called by M'Leod, a 
later occupant, Ensay, from an island home west of Scotland. 
From Ensay the valley opened out. until Doctor's Flat was 
reached, named after Dr. Arbucklc, of McMillans party, who 
was here before taking up Mewburn Park, at Ttnamha, a year 
or two later. 

Passing over fertile pasture lauds, we reached Swift s Creek, 
where dinner was served. The rich Ordovician measures of 
Cassihs are higher up on this creek. Here we left the Tambo 
Valley, after passing Mount Tongio on the left, through the 
httle town of Tongiomunjie (" the place of high cliff* ) ( and 
on a rapidly-rising road, from which* the view of mountain 
and valley was delightful, diverged north-west towards OmeO. 
Tongio was one of the first runs selected in Gippsland, probably 
in 1338, by E Coady Buckley, afterwards of Prospect siatinji, 
south of Longford. As wc ascended towards the Tongio Gap, 
the play of sunshine and shadow on the ranges enclosing the 
valley we had left made a delightful scene. From the Gap 
(2,700 feet above sea-level), with a last look at the fair prospect 
behind us. we gradually descended over the bare hills. w r hcrc 
We, however, caught sight of our first Snow Gums, to Oftieo, 
2,100 feet above the sea and 67 miles from Burthen 

Omeo, at one time a bustling, prosperous mining town,, is 
pleasantly and picturesquely situated along the sinuous course 
of the Livingstone River, which, with the neighbouring 
mountain, is named after one of the original district ptoneeis 
of 1835. It reminds one of Walhalla. but the river valley is 
wider, and the surrounding hills do not so obtrusively encroach 
upon the mam highway. The hotel accommodation at Omeo 
leaves much to be desired. As the town is so favourably 
situated for the rapidly-eMpanding Alpine tourist traffic, this 
should be remedied. 

While Messrs. Williamson and Allen journeyed towards 
Mount Livingstone and Cobungra, Mr. Hughes and 1 went 
down the river, audi crossing it, after a steep climb reached 
the summil of the Bingo Range, north of the I own, from which 
a fine view of the surroundings is obtainable. On our way 
we were interested in the great number of cockchafer which 

6 "Dally and Williamson. Whe.w the Murray Rises. tvoLXXx'fx. 

wexe on the young Peppermints near the river. Their number 
was legion, and in some places the tender leaves had been 
almost ^tripped off the young gums by their voracity. Young 
grasshoppers were also very numerous, our attention befog 
atti acted to them by the unuswal gathering of Blue Wrens 
that were busily employed m improving the occasion. Insect 
life on the slopes of the hill was varied. Butterflies flew about 
the flowering gorse. We watched with interest a wasp that 
was laboriously flying to his cells with a beetle, the latter nearly 
as big as his captor- duly short flights were possible. Another 
wasp had as a prize a juicy Match-fly. This range had iovmcrly 
been well timbered, but the present, vegetation Is all secondary 
growth, with very little scrub. We also made an excursion 
up the stieam, where, neat the ever-spreading blackberry 
thickets, we saw a snake, winch eluded our observation before 
■we could obi am a stick. 1m the Livingstone River there has 
been a great deal of alluvial mining, hydraulic appliances and 
sluicing being extensively used for the recovery of gold. The 
alluvial in river and terrace deposits has been of great extent. 
The surrounding ranges are met amorphic in character, the 
original stratified rocks, according to the late Mr. Hewitt, 
having mostly been altered into silky micaceous schists, gneiss, 
gneissose and schistose granite, with dykes and intrusive rock 
masses. Around Orueo the micaceous character of the rock 
formation is very marked indeed We were interested in the 
water-worn pebbles and stones, which show the very varied 
character of the rocks from which they came — igneous, nitta- 
marpbic, sedimentary, with minerals connected therewith. 
Later, at Mi . Blackburn's, in Omeo, we examined a fine 
collection of district rocks and minerals of great variety and 
interest. Silicifted wood is frequently found in the alluvial 
measures. Omeo has been noted more for the richness and 
extent of its alluvial wash than for its reef formations. Quart/. 
outcrops through ihe mioacenus rock-mass arc noticeable in a)J 
the road cut rings. 

Leaving Omeo by Lhe kindly services of a rnutorist (the 
coach (!) being unable to take impedimenta, parcels, and our- 
selves), we went by a winding and ascending road giving vistus 
of distant valleys and mountains until wc reached " The 
Sugarloaf," a few miles out on the Benambra road, wheie there 
bnrst upon our gnze one of the finest views obtainable in 
victoria. At Omeo we had heard of "The Plains," bui " the 
half was never t.oId.' f They consist of bare or almost treeless 
low hills surrounding the basin of Lake Orneo, and stretches of 
Hat. pastnie land. From this area rises up on each side, to the 
horizon, lofty mountains in ridge and peak. Just beyond are 
The Brothers. Mounts Leinster, Misery, and Tambo to the north- 

7aV> ] &A1.EV iira WtLUAMSOX, WildYfilht MlWttjt RhCS. f 

east, The Sisters to the east, the Gib fro north-west, and, past 
the Knocker, Glen Wills, with Bogong in massive contour 

further west, the Omco Ganges closing in southwards — a, 
striking panorama., interesting in its beauty, its vivid contrast 
and variety. Kar away beyond all is the summit of Rossy/' 
as the monarch of the Alps (Kosciusko, 7,200 feet) is familiarly 
called. "Lake"' Onieo lies jit the centre of this landscape, 
and insensibly there came t& mind an oft-reiterated and 
implicit Jy believed tag of schooldays — f( Onieo on Lake Omeo. 
northeast of Victoria." They arc both north-past, but the 
town is separated by miles of hi] 1-5 from the lake, and the lake- 
belies its name, for it is destitute of water. It is, however, 
still retained in the official list of Victorian lakes as possessing 
an area of 1,906 acres. Some years ago, at the deepest patt, 
there was nine feet of water, and boats were used upon it . now 
it ts a perfectly level expanse;, an ideal spot for the landing of 
aeroplanes and a grazing area for cattle. In Stizlcckis map 
of his route, into Gippslaud the track is marked right through 
the centre of the lake from north to south, so that even in 1840 
it was probably dry, and, according to old settles, that is its 
usual condition, evaporation in such a shallow basin being 
very great, &nd apparently no stream of any volume flows into 
it, although the soaknge from the hills surrounding it must 
be considerable in wet seasons. 

From the Sugarloaf a quick run along the border of the lake, 
past splendid crops and rich cattle pastures, brought us to the 
little town oi Benambra, pleasantly situated on rising ground 
at the northern extremity of the Jake, the centre of the nch 
cattle country extending back to the Murray over uplands, 
river flats, and mountain heights- Having secured comfortable- 
private accommodation, after a survey of our environment 
from sutrounding hills of metamorphic formation, very sparsely 
or not at all timbered, we took the opportunity of attending 
a local spoils gathering in a paddock bordering the other side 
of the Jake, hack races being run on a portion of the level bed. 
Crossing to the sports, we noticed at the lower end of it id lake.. 
about seven miles away, a very distinct rnnage, ^hawing water 
and trees. The local gathering partook of the character of zi 
pleasant, sociable picnic An agent of The Immigration Bureau 
was engaged in taking features of the day, as well as of the 
di&ritvi: occupations and scenery, for leproduchon abroad. J I 
was pleasing, after city conditions, to see the fine show of horses, 
to the number of about 200, which were tefheied around the 
paddock, whilst the presence of thirteen motor-cars gave 
evidence of the prevailing trend. One was struck by the 
appearance of material prosperity as well as of vigorous health 
and fine physique of the residents in this breezy locality, 
Benambra, of course, suffers from remoteness from a. railway., 

$ Daiev a\-p Wrr,UAMSON, Wh*u tli« AUtrtay Mw. [valxxxVx. 

and,, ^peaking with a goad knowledge of the eastern part of 
the State, 1 know of rjo part that appears to oficr better 
prospects tor railway construction than from Bruthrn to 
Benasnbra via the Tambo Valley, Tongio, and Omco. Under 
such a stimulus production would he more varied and greatly 
increased, the mmeral resources would be properly tested, 
and the district he capable of maintaining a much laigct 
population. In addition, the Alpine regions would he efficiently 
opened up for tourists in search nf the pictumsqne. From 
Benambra access can hu made to Mount Kosciusko, 59 miles 
distant, through interesting country ■ but there is nerd nf the 
track being clearly defined -as fat* as Tom Groggin. the ford on 
the Murray. 

Having been fortunate enough to engage the services of Mr. 
*Fred, Jar vis, an excellent bush man, as guide, whilst waiting 
until he could make arrangements for horses suitable for four 
persons whoise horsemanship was, lh rough disuse for many 
years, somewhat uncertain, we decided to make tiit ascent of 
The Brothers. 4,067 feet in height, distant about four miles. 
Crossing the flood-plain and stream of Morass Creek, where we 
saw a number of wildfowl among the swamp vegetation, we 
made for the foot of the range through .some well-grassed 
paddocks Seeing a copperhead snake coiled up near a fence, 
t smashed its head in with a stick, to find that it was already 
dead, although there was no other bruise, or mark upon its 
body. After lunch at a creek, we pursued our way, finding the 
asccut arduous, but persisted until we reached a centra! peak . 
then clouds and rain prevented a clear prospect. This range 
is of granite, somewhat like syenite in appearance, On the 
top ate many huge masses or tors, and the slopes are generally 
well wooded. The range is part of the watershed of the Mitta 
Mif.ta. We found a dancing-mound, but saw no Lyre-birds, 
although on several occasions we heard their calls Wonga- 
Pigeons were numerous in this range. Want of time and 
adverse weather combined to prevent further exploration of 
this rugged granitic range, which is a dominant feature of the 
landscape at Benambra, presenting to view, no matter fr.«m 
what point it is observed, three peaks. 

Next morning, our guide having made satisfactory arrange* 
rnents in regard to our mounts, the cavalcade, with B pack- 
horse to carry supplies for four or five days, set off for Limestone 
Creek, The road leads generally north-east from Benambra, 
skirting the edge of an extensive plain through which Morass 
Creek sluggishly winds around the foot of The Bruthers. Some 
five miles out, after passing n fine herd of about 200 cattle on 
the way to a muster yard, we came opposite a homestead some 
distance from the road, which marks the site of the old home 
o£ James M'Farlanc, the discoverer of Omco Plains, who curled 

Ml£l Daluv and Williamson, Where the. Mwrav Ris*s 9 

•on these rich river flats about 1836. Ahead of ub we had a 
clear though distant view of MTarlane's Look-out, an abrupt 
and prominent peak, from which, tradition states, MTarlanc 
first beheld the plains country, with its fine pastures. Mounts 
Tambo and Little Tambo were iu bold relief away to our right. 

Our track rising upwnrds over country of a ine (amorphic 
nature, passed through forest when- Snow Gum, 5ilvertop, 
Peppermint, Black Sallee. and Candlcbark were the chief 
timber trees ; but one missed the luxuriance of growth which 
marks the Southern Gippsland district. Continuing along a 
ridge of the Bowen Range, we passed two or three sections 
which have been taken up by returned soldiers, who deserve 
every success for their enterprise in such a remote region- In 
Macs Creek, which wc crossed, stream tip has been ubtained 
in moderate quantities. Near Marmgo Creek, further 00/ 
flowing through a pleasant valley with fine chimps of Black 
Sallee, we were much interested in observing the eager and 
general response of the cattle grazing m the vicinity to the 
clear, musical call of someone desirous of assembling them, 
the cattle coming from every side towards the penetrating 
sound of the voice This is explained from the fact that 
mountain cattle arc accustomed to be called in this manner 
when, at regular periods, the salt-licks are replenished, and, 
jeoognizing the call,* they associate it instinctively with the 
desire to satisfy the craving for salt. 

From the Marmgo we rose quickly through the thick forests 
of Snow Gum, obtaining occasionally glimpses of deep valleys 
and distant ranges, whilst Mount Misery loomed to the north r 
forest-clad to the summit. We crossed this -divide at 4,800 
feet, and then began to descend on a steep gradient, until, in 
a ride of about three miles, wc dropped i/ioo feet into the 
Limestone Creek, the ultimate source of the Murray River, 
which, at first a trickling stream, gains volume from the 
numerous mountain springs, and "soon flows — clear, sparkling, 
and swift — over a pebbly bottom past the limestone hills, 
until by the accession of tributaries, after a course of iS miles, 
it becomes the Indi or Murray. There is a considerable area 
uf the Devonian limestone in this district, with granite towards 
Mount hamster, and with Silurian and trap tocks in contact 
in the surrounding ranges. An outcrop of serpentine is passed 
on the ridge, about a hundred yards from the track, just before 
descending into Limestone Creek. An auriferous gravel deposit 
making into the flat was at one time worked, and the evidence 
of extensive sluicing operations for gold recovery is seen. 

\Ve camped in a hut used in cattle musters, and belonging to 
Mr. L. Pender — a name associated with the earliest occupation 
of the district. Tired with our 25 miles' ride, wc retired early, 
two of the par»y sleeping -in the open. The drop in the 

10 Daixv atcii Wiixiamsow Whwr. Iho Murray Rises [v^xxxlx 

temperature after nightfall was considerable. Numerous frust- 
rate scampered about the hut , the howl of a dingo was beard, 
with thv reiterated Boobook.s call ; and, before dawn, we could 
hear the noise made by twelve or fourteen kangaroos, seen just 
behind the hut. where it appeared to be their custom to come 
from The hills to lick the empty hollowed troughs in which salt 
is placed at certain time? for the cattle which also frequented 
the* spot, At the first glimpse of dawn, from tbe trees hurdenng 
the creek came., harmoniously blent, the songs and calls of 
countless bhds in joyful chorus, the rifles of some r being 
unfamiliar, hut not the less welcome to our ears. Alter breakfast 
we set out on Fool to inspect the Limestone caves, which are a 
feature of this remote creek. The first cave, a small one, had 
the entrancr- blocked by the fall of rock ; the others \vc entered 
had features similar to those of Buchan and other eaves of 
like origin Of coui^e. comparison is out of the question, 
these caves as yet being undeveloped, and lacking the con- 
veniences, protection, and effective lighting which Tender tlie 
Buchan Caves so attractive under inspection. The entrances 
arc at present difficult to negotiate. There is evidence of 
thoughtless vandalism in the destruction of stalactites and 
stalagmites : but in course of tame, with easier access to the 
district, atid perhaps Government or local contrnl and direction, 
it is certain that many caves will be opened up for inspection. 
The largest cave, on the left of the stream, is entered in a prone 
position over some saplings placed above the water beneath. 
About the middle of this cave is an intrusive deposit of water- 
worn pebbles, almost cemented together tind several feet thick, 
marking a terrace or bed formed by water action at some remote 
period. At several places water was flowing out through the 
limestone of the hills. 

In the afternoon a walk of about two or three miles to an 
adjacent creek brought us to the place wh^re th<° marble 
quarries have been opened up, and from winch Mr, Summers 
obtained marble of good quality and of variety in colouring, 
from white and somewhat slaty saccharonlal to grey, pinkish 
and mottled- The sub-crystalline limestones of the creek 
contain corals and brachiopods and remains of other marine 
fauna, The qiiarrics arc now idle, awaiting future develop- 
ment, there being abundant scope for the production of marble 
from the hills. As at Buchan, in the vicinity and in connection 
with this Devonian limestone occur minerals such as galena, 
silver, iix>n# manganese, &c. but not in any definite formations 
or to great extent The wolfram mines at Mount Murphy 
arc to the north-west of this area. 

Next day we were early in the saddle, und after crossing the 
Dividing Range over the rough .country separating the head 
waters of the Tarn bo from those of the Murray, we made for 

w*v. J Daley and Wzuiamson, Wfwc lt& Murray Rises < r 

the Cobberas, the country being metamorphic schists, SiUni&n 
Tocks, and felstone porphyries. The late Mx. A. W. Howitt 
said of this range, which is part of a system extending to neat 
Buchan, that it is Ihe 'remains of a great volcanic sheet 
. . The lowest portion approaches die fpaartz-porphyries 
in character. The line o? a meridional fissure on which a t 

scries of volcanoes were built up " : and the " quarta- 
oorphynes were denuded stumps of volcanoes around which 
ielstone, ash, agglomerate- and indefinite felsitic Tocks are 
still grouped." After some hours' riding over these rocky 
hills, where the Native Hop-bush grew under the prevailing 
Snow Gums, we leached the Native Dog Creek, a tributary ot 
the Buchan River. This alpine stream flows down the centie 
•of h long grass-covered and treeless sloping plain or valley 
between the Cobberas and the ranges west of the Snowy River 
watershed. Following this up over the black, peaty soil, where 
soft tussocky Snow Grass and alpine flora grow profusely, we 
•jame to the foot of the most rugged part of the Cobberas 
Range, where, securing our horses, we prepared to climb lo 
the summit. On entering this peaceful valley we had seen a 
group pi four or Sye wild horses, and,, coming higher, had agam 
seen another group issuing from the timber on the upposile 
range. An attempt to secure a photograph, was unsuccessful . 
A little later a rrob ol ten, with a white stallion as leadei',. ^vas 
seen coming from the sheltering timber on to M The Play- 
ground, " as this plain is appropriately called, for it is a favourite 
haunt of the brumbies, being open, well watered, well grassed 
with succulejit feed, and forest cover and mountain retreat 
^.re close at baud The ascent to the summit (6,030 feet above 
sea-level) was somewhat laborious, amid rough and often lagged 
rock-masses of felspar porphyry, over a prolific spnng-h*d 
growth oi: the soft Snow Grass, and amid the ever-present • 
Snow Gums, whose bent and grotesque limbs bore testimony 
to the seventy of winter snows, the iorce of driving winds, as 
well as to the ravages of ocrusional bush-nres Among tlie 
rocks, Aster*, Daisies, Violets, Shaggy Peas, Veronicas, 'Flax 
-and Vanilla Lihes. Trigger-plants, and Euphrasias bloomed in 
great luxuriance, being of unusual size as well as of richness 
in colouring — a veritable alpine garden of delight, Baron von 
Mueller, visiting the Cobberas in 1853. speaks of Sphagnum Moss 
growing in the mountain valleys. 

The Cobberas Range is in tluee main peaks, and from its 
commanding position gives a most extensive view of alpine 
summits and lofty ranges extending on all sides to the horizon, 
The day was jine, but a little haz.y in the far'distance. Nearly 
"north, five miles distant, and marking the boundary -line of 
the State., was Foresr Hill, 5,uao feet in height, yet dwarfed 
in apparent size, and seemingly merged in the lordly Pilot 

12 Daley \xd Williamson, Whsfs the. Mui'wy /?*£«. [voi^xjcxisc. 

(6,0X0 feet) just behind it. From its base springs the small 
stream called the Murray, which, uniting with the cieck lisin^ 
in. the Cobbcras, joins Limestone Crock, the main source and 
the longest of the contributory streams, whose waters form the 
tndi or Murray proper- Away behind the Pilot, over inter- 
vening lofty peak*: and high plains, clearly rises Kosciusko,. 
25 miles distant, the culminating peak oi* the alpine system, 
the patches of snow on its slopes being distinctly visible, 
Slightly to the north-west the Gtbho Range is prominent. 
5,764 feet in height. "Nearly west Mount Misery is seen, and 
way beyond the ranges we* had ridden over appeared Mount 
Wills, 5,738 feet, in front of the impressive Bogong Range 
(6.50S fee:), which, although 40 miles away, shows where snow- 
drifts linger on its bosom. Eastward, across the Playground. 
stretch the ranges of the Snowy watershed, with tin 1 : Monam 
plateau beyond, whilst to the south-east are Black Mountain 
aud the " Suggan Boggan " of Miss Mane Pitt's poem South- 
wards, as everywhere, an endless succession of range upon 
range, peak on peak, to the bounds oi vision. S»)ence and 
solitude brood over this vast panorama, A wild horse whinnies, 
a Lyre-bird calls, a Parrot shrieks, but in no direction is there: 
sound or sign, of human habitation. l\ is a singularly impressive 
scene oi stem, rugged grandeur , hut, under alternate sun and 
shadow', there is a shifting play of colour, while the deep purple 
of distant ranges, the light airiness and soft, fleecy whiteness 
of cluud masses drifting up from deep valleys, give ever- 
changing aspects. On a clear day the eye can discern the 
ocean at Twofold Bay, far Lo the east. There are few more 
widespread and imposing prospects of so wild and pristine a 
nature in Australia. Reluctantly we descended, and. resuming 
the saddle, rode down the eastern side of the." Playground, 
diverging to obtain a nearer view of an imposing mountain 
escarpment known as Ram's Head ; then, reci'ossin^ Native 
Dog Creek lower down, we passed over an outcrop of dark 
blue to black limestone nr marble in contact with porphyry.. 
Here our guide "called" the cattle at the creek until about 
a hundred liad assembled from all sides, and a photograph was 
taken of the expectant herd We reached camp safely, and. 
after tea, tried fishing for trout in the stream, but unsuccessfully 

(To he continued.) 

Fekso\*a3_. — Members will be pleased to know that Mr. H 
B, Williamson, well known for his reseaiches into Victorian 
botany, has been elected a fellow of the Linncan Society of 
London (F,L.S.) " 

Correction.— In the April Naturalist the word "Farrangci '' 
on page 135. and in index page v. and page vii. (errata), should 
read " Farragci ' r 

the Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 2. JUNE S, 1922, No, 462 


The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the- 
Royal Society's Halt on Monday evening, 8th May, 1922. 

The president. Mr f - Chapman, A.L.S , occupied the chair, 
and about seventy members and visitors wear present 


In the absence of Miss C. Nokes. who acted as leader, a 
report of the Ea^iei excursion to Toolangi (I3ih-i£th April) 
was given by Mr. A. li. Keep, who said that it had been a very 
4:njoyabl?, outing. Unfortunately, in the absence of recognised 
authorities in different branches of science, with the exception 
of lepidoptera, the results were not quite so definite as they 
might have been. The scenery, however, was o( the best, 
the beauty 01 the fern*, beeches {myrtles), eu!calypt&, &c, being 
indescribable. A considerable amount of ground was covered 
during the four days but owing to density of the vegetation 
the rambles bad to be confined to tracks, more or less dihaculi 
to follow. The entomological member of the party was well 
satisfied with his captures, and proposed to say something 
about them at a Later date 

A report of the excursion to Maccdon on Saturday to Monday. 
2Q,tb April to zsi May, was given by the leader, Mr. C. Daley, 
F.L.S., who reported an interesting ouiing. At the State 
.Nursery the offiner in charge, Mr. Stancliffe, bad pointed 
out the many interlacing trees, especially the exotic coni- 
fcrfc which, in many cases, form very fine specimens. He 
also gave a number of instructive details regarding them wncl 
the general working of the nursery. The party then proceeded 
to Messrs. Taylor and Sangster's nursery at Upper Maccdon, 
where the rhododendrons, axaleas., hollies, and other trees and 
shrubs- accustomed to higher .elevations form such a feature. 
of the collection. Lunch was then taken on the banks of Stony 
Creek, after which the tourist: track was followed to the Camel's 
Hump This was reached rather late in the afternoon, but 
just in time to get a view of the vast panorama visible from 
tliis well-known vantage point. Proceeding over the range for 
another mile, the farm-house at which accommodation had 
been arranged for 'was reached. Sunday was devoted to a visii 
to the Hanging Rock (Mount Diogenes), and later to the late 
Mr. M'trre^or's garden Oil the nor them slope of Mount Macedon, 
where there is also a nuc collection of trees suitable for high 
altitudes. Monday morning was spent in a ramble to the 
Divide near Hcsket school, and in the afternoon walking, via 

14 ^* w ' f No/wra/i***' ClHb—Pfecftdmg*. [voil^'xxJX 

Braemar House, to Woodcnd, where the train was taken for 
home. Few flowers were noted, owing to the time of year, the 
physiography of the district forming the principal subject of 


On a ballot being taken. Miss Gwendoline Jones. Cnrowa. 
N.S.W., and Miss Ada Foster, Narcen, via Colevaine, were 
duly elected as country members of the Clnb, 


Messrs. G. Hookc and A. J. Tadgell were elected to audit 
the accounts for 1921-22. 

Nominations of office-bearers for the year 1922-23 were then 

Mr A. D. Hardy said that the Forests Commission liad a 
number of surplus trees at the Macedon State- Nursery which 
could be obtained at very moderate prices. A list had been 
prepared, and copies, giving the prices and other details, could 
be obtained from the secretary of the Forests Commission, 
Public Offices, Melbourne. 


By Mr. H. W. Davey, F.E.S., entitled pt The Introduction and 

Spread of Noxious Weeds." 

The author pointed out the many ways by which weed* 
may be introduced and become dispersed through the country. 
He expressed himself as greatly averse to the introduction of 
fresh animals,, birds, insects, or plants to a country,, even as 
controls of pests already established, as nothing could be 
guaranteed as to what might become the habits of such intro- 
ductions in new environments, instancing the Starling, which 
he considered one of the worst pests yet introduced,. 

The paper was attentively followed* and promoted consider*- 
able discussion, mostly in support of the author's contentions. 

Mr H. B, Williamson, F.L.S., gave instances which had 
come under his notice at Geelong of the introduction oi weeds 
by means of ships' ballast, and their subsequent spread over 
large areas. 

Mr. E. E- Pescott, in the course of his remarks, supported 
the author's statement regarding the Starlings, which, was 
combated by Miss R. Currie, who contended that the Starling 
is one of the farmer's best friends. 

Mr. A. D. Hardy thought that Starlings preferred insect food, 
if available, to fruit, and believed that the' Starling was often 
blamed for destruction which was realty caused by the Black- 
bird—a bird he had found to be a greater nuisance. As an 
instance of the adaptability of introduced plants to circum- 
stances, he. mentioned the False Dandelion, Hypoch&ns radicato t 
which grows tender and juicy in the recesses of the Otway 

JJjjJI Field Matura/isls' CM—Proccedings; 15 

Forest; short, stocky, and hard on the shores of Lake Colae ; 
slender and wiry* within the spiny of the breakers en the south 
coast, m the Mai lee, and on sue!) heights as Macedon, St Leonard, 
o.n*l Donna-buang. 

Mr J, Gabiiel said lhaL when the Club party visited the 
Kent Group, in BauS Strati, in f'JftVfcftobGft lo'Qo. he had been 
requester! by Die late Baron von Mueller to collect a specimen 
of every plant he could find. When the tluee hundred speci- 
mens were examined it was found that only 123 were endemic. 
He thought that Starlings generally were beneficial. 

Mr P C- Morrison said that, when staying at Pakenham 
recently, there was a plague of grasshoppers, and, though many 
Starlings wei'e about, they left the grasshoppers untouched 
and feasted on the fruit. 

Mr. Best was afraid that member.-, were apt to criticise 
without being sure of their facls. Had U been proved that 
some so-called pests — blackberries and St. John's Wort — were 
absolutely useless? Had any effort been made to turn them 
to some useful account.,, such as paper-making? The Broken 
Hill mines won their reputations as silver mines, but now the. 
production of /.inn far outweighed the Miver mined He thought 
that m course of time a use would be found for many of the 
things We now call "pests.' 1 

The author said he was glad to have the opportunity of 
replying, for he desired to emphasize what he'had said about the 
Starling. This bird, while it did eat insects, also ate a good 
many other things, and in the Western District had developed 
a new taste — viz., a liking for wheat m the milk stage, and, 
in con sequence of this, several hundred acres of crop had been 
destroyed tins year. Near a certain country town they were. 
wont to congregate m thousands for roosting purposes in some 
timber surrounding the town's water supply. He left it to 
the members to imagine what that water supply would become. 


Mr. A. L. Scott drew attention to his exhibit of scoria, &c. ( 
from Mount Eden, which is one of a number of extinct volcanoes 
in the immediate neighbourhood of Auckland, N.Z. The cone 
and crater of this volcano are in excellent preservation. The 
cofte is built up of scoria, and is about 300 feet high. The 
cratei occupies practically the whole of the summit, and is of 
considerable diameter and depth. The rock is basanite, very 
similar to our common road-metal blucstone or basalt, but 
is more basic — i.e., less silica has been taken up in the minerals 
of which it is composed. 

Mr. C. Oke drew attention to his exhibits of a dipterous fly 
and a mallophaga, Phiiapterus (sp. ?) under mieioscope, Both 
these insects were taken from a Laughing Jackass, Dacdo gi^as, 

j6 Field Naturalist^ anb—Procevrfi-ngs [vJr^xxix. 

which had been shot by some so-ca.lled w sports 1 ' and left to 
die. It was taken home by a gentleman and given a drink. 
but soon died, after which he had obtained it and e.vuruncd it 
for parasite*. Ho asked any members who mi^'lit happen to 
come across dead or maimed birds to let either Mr. H. Clinton 
or himself have them to search for parasites. They wanted 
parasites, but would not kill birds, to obtain them, 

Mr F Chapman, A.L.S., drew attention to his exhibit of a 
fossil eucalyptus leaf, found by Mr. Wilfred Henty in the 
volcanic tttft of Mount Gambler, South Australia, The speci- 
men was almost unique, as it belonged to a modern type of 
eucatypt — one with thin foliage and oblique venation The 
leaf probably became fossilized by being covered over by a 
w\?t volcanic dust shower that subsequently hardened into a 
cement, like the Roman trass. He referred in eulogistic terms 
to Dr. C. Fenncr's paper on the locality, recently published in 
the Proceedings of l.hc Roval Society of South Australia. 


By Mr F G. A. Barnard. — Living specimen of the Red- 
striped (poisonous) Spider, Lalrodcctits scdra. Some account of 
this spider will he- found in the Victorian Naturalist for Januaiy, 
1S91 (vol. vii., p. 140). 

By Mr, P, Chapman, A.L.S. — Photograph of a luminous 
"fungus, phctgraphed by its own light ; fossil eucalyptus leaf 
in volcanic tuff, from Mount Gambier, on behalf of Wdfied 
Henty, Esq. 

By Mr. C, Daley, B.A., F.L.S.— Dacite from Mount Maccdon. 
solvsbarpte from Hanging 3?ock, and hmbergite from near 

By Mr. H. W. Davey, F.E.S. — Penpatus, from Kinglakr, 

By. Mr. C. Okc. — Mallophaga, Phdaptcrus (sp. ?) and a 
dipterous fly, taken from a dead Laughing Jackass, Dacdo i;igas, 

Bv Mr. A. E'. Rodda, — Growing specimens of Coral Fern 
and* Screw Fern, from Moc Swamp; on behalf of Geological 
Survey of Victoria, crustacean fossils from Pott Darwin, 
Northern Territory, and Moreton Bay, Queensland. 

By Mr. A. L, Scott — Scoria horn Mount Eden, Auckland, 
New Zealand. 

By -Mr. L. Thorn. — Top and lower jaw of Bulldog Shark, 
Cexfracion phit/tpi, commonly known as " Pig-fish " . also 
two parasitic sea-leeches which were found attached 1n ihe 
anrier side of this Bulldog Shark, catiebf on 1st May, oft Edith 
Vale, Port Phillip. 

By Mr H. Whit.morc.-~ Slate from Long Tunnel mine, 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated, 

^•'I D.u.ty j\xc Williamson. Whey,; the Murray ??*,<,•< 

JJv Cba$, Dalky, B.A,F.L.S., and H.B. Williamson, E.L.S. 

{Rcod before the Field Naturalists* Club of Victoria, \ $ttt Mar. t 1922.) 
{Covtimtad from paga i2.) 

On the Iftdttfrw W& iode back lo Bcnambra Occasionally 
sve had seen kangaroos fit the forest, three Jingoes had crossed 
our track's, and we found rabbits widely distributed. On Stir 
way hack we saw a Wedge-tailed Eagle carry off a rabbit to 
some distance, and we had an adventure with a large snake, 
which, placing itself in an aggressive attitude, disputed the 
right-of-way until disabled and killed. In the vicinity of Mount 
Pender our guide showed us an outcrop of mineralized stout 
containing traces of copper pyrites. These ranges may ye!, 
when fully prospected, yield mineral wealth 

We rested at Bcnambra over the Sunday. Messrs. Williamson 
and Alien returned to Omen on Monday. Mr Hughes and 1 
spent the day principally in examining the lake, on which we 
found evidences of three distinct bca.che.f, one of them (on the 
eastern side) being marked by white nodular concretions. TItt 
Jake gives evidence of having been dry.- for years, and water. 
if present in its shallow bed, would be the sport of tlie winds. 
A low range divides the Irvkc from the Morass Creek valley on 
the north. Some years ago a project was favourably reporUd 
upon by which the water from Morass Creek, a permanent 
stream, could be diverted by channels and pass through a 
tunnel m the- hills into Lake Omeo, in order (0 keep it per- 
manently filled. 

On Tuesday Mr. Hughes unci I lef r; Beuambra, and, reaching 
Omro, found that Messrs. Williamson and Allen had gone for 
the day 10 Cobungra in search of Eucalyptus iicglcda, At 
6 p.m. they returned in triumph with visible trophies of their 
success. They left for Brutheu early next day. Mr, Hughes 
and I left at 7 a.m. by coach on Thursday for Bright.* The 
toad passes up the Livingstone towards the divergent Irack 
to Cassilis, then crosses the Livingstone at the Memorial 
Bridge. The great extent of the hydraulic workings in tin: past 
is very noticeable, Uic valley of the river lacing strewn with a 
mass of pebbles and boulders. The blackberry grows riotously 
luxuriant along the stream. Winding in and out, but always 
upwiird, the road leads over the slope of Mount Livingstone 
(4,007 feet), (juarU nut crops were noticed here and there in 
(he country rock. At: a little creek wc passed the track cot.- 
necling the Bright road wilh Cnssilis, and were soon on the 
irack to Cobungra, noted for the perennial richness of its 

* : (This pot lion Of tltti ltl\) t* "'ell I lluslttxtcil m Mr. G. If'. ^BroiiubciU'* 
rccoul. booklet, M Across the Alps"— i:,i>- Viol, ^ ^ rti ] 

tS Dalev and Williamson. Whtrethfl Murray Risr.s [vJiVxxxVx 

pastures. The old hotel is closed, and the only place with 
sign of residence is Rlggall'S fine cattle station. The cat tic 
—Hereford, as usual — were fat and healthy. An Emu — the 
second we had seen— was grazing with the cattle. 

Leaving the Victoria Rivet, the road led upward through 
fairly thick timber, until a height of nearly 5,060 feel was reached. 
A stop was made for lunch at an improvised camp where horses 
Ac changed, near Mr. Sharp's homestead. Further on three 
separate patties were passed who were engaged in road mending 
or making on the area where the basaltic flow occurs which 
extends over the Cobungra and Datgo High Plains, a frequent 
though disconnected capping of the highest ranges, the 
residuum of the extensive lava-sboets of the Older Basalt era, 
m which probably, at the close of the Miocene period, the Java 
flowing down filled the ancient valleys, thus forming a great 
pUitcau of immense .extent, which in the process of ages has 
hy incessant and extensive denudation been resolved into the 
existing mountain and valley systems- Beneath this basal i 
on lite Dargo High Plains fossil leaf-beds and impure lignites 
occur ; and at the Cobungru mine auriferous river-giaveJs, 
conglomerates, clays, and sands have been worked successfully 
under the basalt- 13ms noil is rich, springs and bog? are over- 
saturated with water, and the alpine vegetation under the 
Snow Gums is profuse and varied, Daisies and Asters, E-vi-.r- 
lastings, the Mountain Shaggy Peas, Kupbrasias, Craspedias, 
Rice-flowers, and Stylicliums lending brightness and variety to 
larger plants forming the scrub vegetation of tfie higher 
altitudes. Coming near to the summit oJ Hot ham an un- 
equalled panorama is revealed on every side. Mount Hot ham, 
or " Baldyv 6,ioufeer in height, is a splendid vantage point, 
its deepest slope being towards the Dargo River. On the north 
side stretches the Kiesva ftiver valley, north-cast the Cobungra 
valley, and north-west is the Ovens valley. Seven miles distant 
is Mount Feat her top, whilst Mounts Loch and Painter are 
prominent peaks, and about ten miles away arc seen the lofty 
plains of mighty Begong. An interesting feature at the road- 
side near Mount Hotham is the presence of blocks of basalt, 
distinctly columnar in structure, pentagonal in form, and 
mostly about two feet long, concave at the one end and convex 
At the oilier. Some of these blocks are well preserved, Others 
in various stages of decomposition towards the ultimate stage 
of elay. At one period these blocks, wh.h others that have 
been disintegrated, were probably in then* jointed structure 
one upon the other in organ-pipe foimation, as in similar 
columnar basalt deposits seen elsewhere. Now. disjointed and 
overthrown, they are enriching the soil m their decay. 

Just after passing round " Baldy," whilst looking at the 


pAl.hV AND Wu.UAMSOX. WIlMtl /hit Mu¥Y&y JiufS- 1<> 

wonderful view past Kazorback to Featherlop unci down Into 
the Far depths of the valleys, around Fealhertop swept fleecy 
cloud mists, winch, filling the valley with their presence, rapidly 
rose, before a rising wind, blotting out the landscape, and 
enveloping us so that we could see only about a doien yards 
ahead. Then lain came, and our road around the south of 
Mount Sruythe and along the western side of the fitly-named 
Mount Blowbard, where the road js narrow, and the descenl 
on the valley side precipitously deep and dangerous, required 
in the circumstances our driver "s most careful skdl and atten- 
tion. A paar of eagles perched on the edge of Uic road flew 
almost lrom under the horses' feet into the enveloping clcnids. 
The vkw was completely obscured, and we were pleased indeed 
to see the Hospice nestling near the top of Mount Si, Bernard 
A hearty meal and a good rue warmed and cheered us. Aftej' 
tea, tempted by a fleeting glimpse of fine wearhu, we started 
out for fuither obsei vation, but thick cluud and rain again 
came up and drove us back again. The rainfall a*. the Hospice 
is aboui <3f> inches pw annum. 

In Hie morning we resumed our journey to Harrjetville down 
the long, winding, but generally well -graded' road. Although 
*he weather was not propitious, we occasionally caught sight, 
of the summit ot leathertop and other peaks whilst the mass 
uf the mountain was invisible, and the timbered slopes and 
beautiful valleys were with us all the way. Approach tag 
Hariietville, evidences of mining operations were seen in the 
tunnels in the sides of the mountains and (he tailings heaps in 
souk of the valleys. Harrictvillc is a pretty township on the 
Ovens. Beautiful trees grow in its streets and gardens. Here 
wl found the devastation caused by dredging ever with us 
as we passed along th* valley of tlm Ovens .River, whose original 
beauty has been sadly marred by the operations. In addition, 
wo soon noticed, all the way to Bright, the prevalence of that 
introduced curse, St. John's Wort, Hypericum pci'/oratum, in 
full bloom, glowing profusely everywhere — in good or bad 
soil, on valley or IvdJ. Its eradication is a hopeless task. 
Another introduced plant growing with aco?lerafed vigour is 
the Blackberry.. Ritlms <]fttticvkUS 4 choking the streams, 
su angling native vegetation, and harbouring rabbits and snakes. 
Nearing Bright, after passing mile after mile of the stoiie- 
stnewn flats marking the dredges' destroying workings, we saw 
where, trnder the direction of the Forestry Department, laudable 
attempts were being made to bide, by tree-planting, the traces 
of ihe unsightly ravage? which dt edging has effected in Ibis 
once beautiful valley. Quite a forest of healthy-looking 
conifers is growing over a considerable area. At another place 
the successful planting of Black Wattle on the denuded spaces 

20 D.m.i:v \\0 Wii.i.1 .\mkon. Where ///(? Murray Ih'sez. f yj^jofix 

is observed. These 4f6 only oases in the desert of devastation, 
hat worthy of repetition ad nift.nitnm in the Ovens valley. In 
clue course wc readied BrigbC in its picturesque and attractive 
surroundings. Here, as at Harrietvillc, lovely trees grow in 
the streets and gardens, walnut trees especially flourishing along 
the iSvei flats. 

Leaving Bright by train, wc had a splendid view of the 
Buffalo Mountains, so popular a holiday' resort, and we returned 
to tiie city carrying with us very pleasant recollections of the 
spaciousness, grandeur, and cshilaiation of fur-off mountain 

Part 11.— Boiasjcai Norms, ay H Ul Wiummso.w F.L.S. 

Most of the shrubs along the picturesque Bruthen to Omoo 
road were past flowering. These would make a fine show 
about two months earlici. 'Zhrrt wftv. however, a few, notably 
Long-leaf Lomatiu, Kanooka, and Chrisjtnus Bush, which 
brightened the outlook with their white or yellow blooms. 
Occasionally/ on the sides of the cuttings, the small -flowered 
Cockspur, PUch'anihtts porvtfform, displayed its pretty pale 
flowers. The Grey Mistletoe, J.oran/hti.s quawdmg* was frequent 
on the trees over the track, and the feathery fruits of Clematis 
decorated many bushes. Hie only Acacia seen m Woom was 
the Late Black Wattle, A. nwiUssrmo. - 

A ramble along the Livingstone Creek at Omco soon showed 
the hopelessness of getting much of the original vegetation, 
owing to operations of the gold-seekers, who have repeatedly 
turned over the soil on both hanks, and left little but clear 
gravel. Amongst this gravel, howevr-.r, the rather rare Bush 
Clover, Lesfiedexa VMuata, was found, a plant reminding one 
of a whitish -flowered Cape Broom, dwarfed and unbranched. 
The curious, hard-spined Anchor Plant, Disc-aria amttnlis, is 
common around Omeo, but fruit only was found. Variety 
parvifl.ora qf Davu&irt latifolia is also plentiful, fruiting. This 
form has very small leaves, not undulate 01 reticulate as in the 
common form. A very luxuriant growth of Dusky Seuivy 
Pea, Psorttka ad.\ccndcns t was noted in some of the small gulbcs. 
About a utile from Omeo, along the road to Bright, a patch 
of tlie Heraldic Scotch Thistle, Oncpoi'don tuvwthww, with its 
white blankety toinentum, is a prominent feature. This has 
long been naturalised in Victoria, but apparently has not spread 
us other thistles have done TuHed Knawell, ScleranthHs 
chaniter can be seen on 1he ed.ijc <>f Hit old workings 

A walk rilfftlg the Bright road lor seven jnilcs from Omco, 
rising some i,50U feet, was of interest, some unc- views of Hie 
town and its surroundings being obtained, Growing in 
association wen? three leafless sanUtaeeous nlAnts — Pale-fruited 

*';iiV> 1 BAUi v as o Wilu amsox, What*?. }h$ Murray Ktxv&, j t 

Ballart, ExQcavfiiis slncla, Leafless Sou^bnsh, Qutft/tacvineria 
atcrba, iind Dwarf Sour-bush, Clwrctrum lotcnffci'itM, tJltf iw» 
first-named heing in Jniil, and lite Ium beating small white 
Jimvers The Keck jvdoma. J , axillaris, ami flawing shrubs 
of Indigo, Showy Guinea-flower, and Curved Kicc-flowcr, 
Pimclca curvtflora, \\ti\ alpina, were [lequcni, the last -turned 
being a much-branched shrub, up to three feet. SiualKmited 
Hakea, //. ntk-rocarpa was common, but 1 faded tn find Mat 
leaves on any of the bushes. 

About seven miles from Omeo the poles of the electric line 
which once supplied Cassilis mine with current are still standing, 
and, along this, up some 500 yards a patch of Woollybutt has 
been exploited for its excellent timher. This tree is. Piwalypivs 
Sitthcnana, the SUvci top oi our ** Census, " which records V./longi- 
folta as Woollybutt, a rare Victorian tree, found only in the 
extreme south-cast. 

On the dry bed of Lake Omeo, at Benambra, [ittlc vegetation 
was to be seen, the only flower gathered being the Rosy 
Pelargonium, P. Rodnovttnnm, in a much-stunted state. On a 
dry sneep-grazed hill near the town were the Silverweed l.ily, 
Lttxmannw gracilis, and Variable Tic-trefoil, DcsmcxUmti varians. 

Morass Creek, a strip of dark green, winch through tfus 
plateau, and consists of thickly-matted water-plants on which 
one could almost walk with a device like snow-shoes. Besides 
tbt common water- weeds --among which Purple Loosestrife 
and Pink Knotweed relieved the dark green — there gtew ihe 
Floating Marsh wort, jjrnnanlhamrw gcmwaf.-irtn, with fringed 
yellow flowers. At the water's edge, also, two rare daisies were 
gathered — Brachycome radwanx \uvi 8, nngnUifoho . In the 
Keibauum are specimens of both these, gathered in this 
locality by Baron von Mueller in 1853 

On "The Brothers,'' near Benambra, the only plants of 
interest found were the Mountain German, C- soxosa t Mountain 
Cudweed. QnaphyUnm ulpi"Ctumi t Turquoise Berry, Drywopltilii 
cyanocarpa, and Pennywort Azorella. A Mitclkri, The last- 
named was in leaf only. On a creek seven miles north-east of 
Benambra, .B<r-c-kca Cimnicwn, in bloom, revealed itself by it* 
strong perfume, and a few plants of llp(tcri$ longiffora, Fuchsia 
Heath, were noted without blooms. 

From Benambra to Limestone Creek ihe forest consisted 
chiefly of Snow Gums, Black Sallee, /:. sirilulalo, Broad-Jcaved 
Peppermint, E. tfw.s, and Candle-bark, /r. ntbiihx, There were 
patches of Swamp Gum and N arrow dcav eel Peppermint and 
Woolly butt Thrt alluvial, rabbit-infested, grassy Mots rj{ 
Limestone Creek presented m some parts large patches of 
Alpine Didiscus, i>, frtmdlis, which appeared to be (lie only 

2-z Dai iv anh Williamson, [VhcyetJia Murray Pises [v^xxnix 

plant that had successfully defied the rabbits,. and which covered 
the fiats with u carpet of white. Other plants peculiar to llifc 
^Joitli-Hast tfQrc Pimclcfl pfzitvifkva and Jvncws fitluilvs. At 
the Marble: Quarries were seen some fine bushes ni Alpine Aster, 
Ghana wlpicola, and the Large-leaved Aster, tf, megahphylta, 
was abundant along the stony track to the Cobbcras. This 
track m places led through open grassy plains, and on the way 
many alpine plants, such as ate common on the Buffalo Plateau, 
were gathered. A rate Pultena?a, K. Jascientota, syafi gathered 
here. Specimens of this plant have apparently not been sen I 
to our Herbarium since Mueller brought it from the Cobberas 
in 1853, Austral Cord-rush, Restto >?Hst.rtit?,s, is common here, 
and was reported by our guide as eausinp; much trouble to horses 
that nibbled it, by becoming fixed between then* teeth. 

AHct leaving out horses, the dimh to I he summit of \he 
Cobberas was, from the botanist s point of view, the most 
interesting part of the trip, The way led up through weirdly 
gnarled, and stunted Snow Gums, among beautiful, bushes of 
Dei* went. Speed well. Veronica Derwcntia, Large-leaved Aster, 
Rosemary Everlasting, and Tasman Flax Lily, Biartdla 
Tasmanica. Here and there were- matted clumps of the alpine 
form of White Purslane- CluyLoniu auslralas\ca, which grew in 
the damp hollows, ana on the rocky ledges Snow Daisies, tfrachy- 
conic nivalrs > and Silver Asters. Celmisia, attracted the alien* 
Lion. At the summit the Snow Gums presented some rc- 
maikaNy gnarled and deformed shapes, and attained a 
yiilb of 15 feet, though scarcely exceeding that hi heiglit. 
Under these stunted trees there was a thick growth of 
fussock-yrass, Poa caspitosa l and Coarse Bent-grass, Cutoff* 
ffjgfttf£& PVrftV, interspersed with bushes uf the lovely Alpine 
Mint-bush, ProUanthcra cuneata, and an Alpine Aster, Qknriu 
Vihrtpando '. once considered as n form of Aster stelhdatiis. The 
curious alpine umbelliferous plants, Aciphyllti aunplicicaulii and 
A . glrmalis, grew in abundance, especially the latter, the dense 
masses of which, with their heads of creamy flowers, were really 
beautiful. Sweet Holy-grass. Hieruchloo redolent, with its 
panicles of shining golden spikelots, grew sparingly at the 
summit. Other alpine plants seen in bloom were Alpine 
Phcbalium, P. prnhctrpnides, Violet FleabanG, Erigcron 
pappochroinu$ t Mountain Shaggy Pea. Qxvlobwm alpeslrc, Leafy 
IJctssea, /jon.nrpa foUosu (many plants with ripe fruits, one only 
in full bloom), Alpine ftice-flawer, Pimcka alpim, Pine Bottle* 
brush, Calhskmfln pitvotdes, Long Podotcpis, P. lon»ip6dala, 
Mountain Mirbelia, W. oxyloboides. Thyme Heath, Epacrts 
sctpyll\f(tlia t .and Mountain Plum Pine, Podocarpus alpina. 
Main other plants which bloom near Melbourne in October 

"^m'] Davev _wr> Williamson. Where the Murray Rtsts. 23 

were here seen at their best — Fiingehlies, Chocolate-lilic?. 
Myosotis, Stackhousjas, Indigo. Pimeleas, Buttercups, Violets, 
Flax, Trigger-plaats. Billy Buttons, Bluebells, Veronicas— and 
one could not fail to be struck with the wonderful brightness 
<>f colouring these flowers display in high altitudes — so much so 
that one has sometimes faakd to recognize an old friend when 
presented In a more showy dress. 

Having a spare day at Omeo, I determined to try to reach 
the rare Eucalyptus neglccia of Maiden, which had been 
repotted from the ' head^of the Livingstone Creek, 20 miles 
from Orneo." Hearing from a scruh-cuttcr I chanced to meet 
that a curious kind of gum-tree grew near h»s camp on the 
Cobungra estate, I arranged with a resident, who agreed to drive 
me to within a mile or two of the camp, about 18 miles oat. 
Accompanied by the youngest of our party, Mr. Allen, who, 
by the way, is a keen observer of the plants, and helped 
materially in the collecting, I found the object of my inquiries 
growing on Spring Creek. Cobungra, and gathered a good 
supply— evidently the first specimens brought to Melbourne 
since Howttt sent a 'few scraps in 18S2. It grows so densely 
-along the creek that even a wallaby has difficulty in making its 
way through it. Our *• Census *' gives the vernacular " Neglected 
Gum," but I would suggest, as more appropriate, Omen 
Gum." At the *ame locatity we gathered some very iine 
mushrooms about six inches- across, which were remarkable 
for their regular and uniform shape. 

Orchids. — Four only were met with — Dipodium punctatum t 
at Omeo ; Chiloglothi Gunnh, at "The Brothers"; Plero%t\iis 
vlpinfa at Cobungra ; and a Caladenia, probably an alpine form 
of C, camea, on Cobbcras. 

Ferns, — Three only were seen — Blahmtm penna-marina 
(Lomaria alpina), at Cobungra, under Eucalypius negtccta ; 
Asptemitm tnehomemes, among rocks at Limestone Creek j and 
tire common Aspidinm amlcaiiim at the summit of Cobberas. 

Birds. — -With the assistance of Mr. Hughes I am able to recooi 
43 species. Wonga Pigeon* were heard frequently r and three 
or four were seen, one of which allowed us to approach near 
enough to get a fine view of the bird. Of Honey-eaters, the 
White-naped, the White-plumed, the two Wattle-birds, and 
the Friar-bird were seen. On the high grassy plains Spur-wing 
Plover were numerous, and on Morass Creek, at Benambra, 
Coot, Black Duck, Teal, and Swan were noted. Bald Coot 
waded along the edge, and a few of the beautiful Sheldrake 
(Mountain Duck) rose from near by, On a road cutting 
1,500 feet above the town of Omeo, early in the monung, we 
watched a pair of Gang-Gang Cockatoos at their morning meal 

24 and Williamson, Whtte theWurvay RwMi [v^'xxxik. 

of Silver Wattle seeds. They fed unconcernedly pO or 30 feet 
away from us. Eagles were very numerous, and one which 
1 followed dropped the rabbit it was carrying, and watched mc 
from a short distance as I examined its catch. A Satin Fly- 
catcher entertained us by an exhibition of fly-eating, its meal 
being apparently a dragon-fly* which it appeared to have 
deprived of its wings. It seemed a great meal for so small 
a bird. Grey Bell-Mafjpirs and White -winged Choughs flew 
around us, uttering their harsh croaks or mournful whistles. 
Fantails (two), Cuckoo -Shrikes, Blue Wrens, and Wood- 
Swallows were frequently met with, while Crimson* Parrots and 
Roseiias seemed anxious for us to notice them. The hirds we 
heard but did not ^ee were Bronze-wing Pigeons, Lyre-birds, 
Frogmouths, Boobook Owls, Btonxe and Pallid Cuckoos, and 
the Oriole. 

A.A.A.S. — The report of the fifteenth meeting of the Austral- 
asian Association ior the Advancement of Science, held in 
Melbourne in Januaiy, 1921, has been issued Unfortunately, 
the funds available only sufficed* for printing the presidential 
addresses in the different sections, the papers read being listed 
under their titles, with references to where they have been 01 
wilt be published- This curtailment is greatly to he regretted, 
but was inevitable owing -to the high cost, of printmg 

''Critical .Revision of the Eucalypts ' "' -The recently- 
issued parts (5*> and 53) of this valuable svork by Mr. J. H. 
Maiden, I.S.O., F.R.S., Government Botanist of New South 
Wales, advance the total number of species of Eucalyptus 
described to 309- Among the latest is /:. Sf'-udkydi^is, described 
from a tree observed by Mr. A. D. Hardy in Siuriley Park, 
Kew. It is, however, regarded by Mr. Maiden as- a hybrid, 
and is perhaps a unique specimen. The listing .of species is 
now ncanng completion, the author expecting tn reach 35° with 
the SfiSSrcf 'scription. In recent parts considerable *pace has 
been devoted to comparisons of the growing tree, bark T timber, 
&c„ and the vexed question of hybridization is now being con- 
sidered, with tire result that Mr. Maiden is of opinion that hybrid 
cucalypts have undoubtedly been found in various parti of 
Australia, while artificial hybrids have been raised by Mr. 
C J Weston. Afforestation Officer, Federal Territory, Canberra. 
Accidental hybrids have been recorded from Algerian plantations 
of eucalypti Among tliose which have been named as species, 
but which may prove to be hybrids, are E, calophylla, E, 
Consideniana, E. Kitsonmtwr&nd Enegiocta, The last-named 
i$ referred to by Mr Williamson on the preceding page 

CDc Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX— No. 3 JULY 6- 1922. No. 463, 


The forty-second annual meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Sox;iety'5 Hall on Monday evening, 12th June, 1922. 

The president, Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., occupied the chair, 
and about sixty members and visitors were present. 


From Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S , thanking members for 
again nominating him for office on the committee, and saying 
that, as he had held office for more than twenty-five years as 
secretary, vice-president, president, or member o£ committee, 
he considered it time he stood aside and made room for a 
younger member. 

On the motion of Messrs. Oke and Hardy ,- it was resolved to 
ask Mt. Kershaw to allow his nomination to stand. 


In the absence of the leader, Mr. J. A- Kershaw, F.E.S. , 
Mr. C. Daley, F.L.S., gave a short account of the* visit to the 
National Museum tm Saturday, 13th May, when there was a 
good attendance of members. Mr. Kershaw invited the party 
to follow him to the bird room, where a large number of bird- 
skins were displayed for examination. After some general 
remarks about birds, illustrated by references to the skins 
displayed, he explained the anatomy of a bird's wing by means 
of a mounted skeletal wing. Some time was then given to 
the " H. L. White Collection u of Australian bird-skins, after 
which a visit was paid to the insect room, where a number of 
drawers of butterflies and beetles were examined. Altogether, 
a very interesting two hours or so was spent at the Museum, 
which, considering the limited staff, is in a high state of 

A report of the excursion to Evelyn on Monday. 5th June 
(King's Birthday), was given by one of the leaders, Mr. C. Oke 
(his co-lcadei, Mr C. L. Barrett, C.M.Z.S., being unable to be 
present at the excursion owing to ill-health): Considering the 
time u( year (midwinter), the attendance was very satisfactory, 
nearly forty heing present. The party walked along' the now 
disused Lilydale water-race towards Wandin as far as the 
cascades on the Ohnda Geek, returning to the station by the 
Wandin road, Though there is a wealth- of shrubbery,' &c, 
along the creek, flowers (excepting the native heath) were 
scarce. A number of insects, spiders, &c, were also collected, 

?6 Fitld Naturalists* Ctub~*PrQce*4iitgs, [vai*.XXxVx 

and will form the basis of further remarks on a later date 
Sonic of the party continued I heir walk to Lilytlak, rejoin »ng 
the train there. 


On a' ballot being taken, Miss C. Morris, TUanet -street, Mal- 
vtrn, and Mr. Albert Bishop, 8 Dudley-street, East Caul field > 
were elected ordinary members, and Mr. W- C. Tonge, Eltham. 
as a country member of the Club. 


The hon secretary, Mr. C. Qke, read the forty-second annua] 
report for the year 1921-2, which was as follows ; — 

"To TftE -Members of tue Field Naturalists' Club Of 


11 Ladies and Gentlemen, — In presenting the forty-second 
annual report of the Club for the year ended 30th April, 1922, 
your committee desires to thank members for their hearty 
support, and to congratulate them on the successful results 
attained, during the past twelve months. 

"Commencing the year with 259 members and associates 
ou the rolls, there were elected 27 ordinary, 4 country, and 
3 associate members. Deaths numbered 5, and resignations 6, 
leaving a membership of 282. It is with regret we have to 
record the. deaths of several well-known members In July 
there occurred the deaths of Mr. J. P. M'Lenoan, of the Burnlev 
Horticultural Gardens, and Mr. E. H. Lees, C.E., F.R.AS", 
of Mallacoota. In October Dr. Drake, of Beaconsfield, died, 
and during January Mr. F. Smith, of Noorat, and Mr. H. Young, 
of Meredith, passed away. To the relatives and friends the 
Club offers its deepest sympathy in their loss. 

" The monthly meetings have been held regularly, with an 
average attendance of between 60 and 70 members and friends. 
Fourteen papers have been re*ad and one lecture given during 
the year, and these, together with the discussions that have 
followed, nave proved very entertaining and instructive. Such 
diverse subjects as anthropology (2), botany (6), entomology (3), 
geology (1), and physiography (2) have been successfully 
treated. The following , papers and lectures have been 
delivered ; — In May- — ' Some Aboriginal Stone Implement**/ hy 
Dr. G. Home, V.D. \ in June — ' A Description of a New Trv- 
malium,' by Mr. J. W. Audas. F.L.S. j in July— ' An Ento- 
mologist in Southern Queensland, by Mr F. E. Wilson . in 
August — 'The Gippsland Lakes Country ! the Physiographical 
Features,' by Mr. T. S- Hart, M.A.. and 'A Day's Beetle- 
Hunting at the Lerderderg,' by Mr. C. Oke ; in September — 
*Forcstry,' by Mr Owen Jones In October .a Mueller Com- 

J "g& ] ft *W Natuvaltsti 1 aub—Procetdingt. 27 

memoration Night was held, ft being the twenty-Jifth anni-, 
versary of the death of Baron Sir F. von Mueller, K.C.M.G., 
when three papers were given dealing with the vanous aspects 
of his hie and work. These were 1 — (a) ' A Sketch of Mueller's 
JA; by Mr C Dafev, B.A., FX.S. ; (6) 'Mueller's Published 
Works/ by Mr. E. E/Pescott, F.I..S. j ifi) Mueller's Botanical 
Exploration of Victoria,' by Mr, F. G. A. Barnard. In Novem- 
ber — 'Notes from the Maliec : Botany/ by Mr. H. B. William- 
son ; in. December — ' A Further Contribution to the Alpine 
Flora of Victoria/ by Mr. A. J Tadgell. and 'Notes on the 
Caper Butterfly/ by Mr. C. J. Cole ; in January — ' Notes on the 
Geology of the Malice/ by Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S.; in 
February — 'Notes from the National Herbaridm/ by Messrs. 
J. Tovcy and F. P. Morris , in March — * A Trip to the Sources 
of the Murray River/ by Messrs. C. Daley, B,A.» F L.S., and 
H. B. Williamson ; ii\ April — ' Aboriginal Scrapers/ by Dr. 
G. Home, V.D. Most of the papers read have appeared in 
the Club's journal. 

u The excursions of the Club have been well maintained 
during the year, the popularity of these outings being evident 
by the numbers who have attended them, and who, it is 
to be hoped, have derived both profit and pleasure, which 
combined constitute knowledge. Reports of excursions do 
not, as a rule, contain much, if anv. evidence of actual 
observation done in the field, which is much to be re- 
gretted, for it is only by so doing that we can hope to live- 
up to our name field naturalists. A number of excursions 
have been made on Saturday afternoons to places of interest 
around the metropolis, while whole-day trips have been made 
to the following places: — Werri bee Gorge, Paradise, Hoalcs- 
viilc, You Yangs, Frartkston.Tooradin, Warrant, and Bel^rave, 
and trips of longer duration to Beudigo, Walhalki, and Tool&ngi* 

"In June last this Club, in conjunction with the Micro- 
scopical Society, held ail exhibition 'of natural history specimens 
in the Melbourne Town Hall. This was opened by His Excellency 
Ihe Earl of Stradbrokc, who expressed his delight at finding 
that Melbourne had enough people wit. ft a scientific inclination 
to hold such a fine exhibition. The financial result of this 
exhibition was 1he addition of £23 to the Club's funds, the 
Microscopical Society receiving an equal amount. The com- 
mittee desire to thank all those who gave of their time so freely 
and worked so well to make this exhibition the success it was. 
and would like Lo particularly thank Miss Gabriel and ladies 
for attending to the refreshments. 

"The annual exhibition of wild-flowers was held in the 
Athenttum Hall on Tuesday, 27th September, and was opened 
by Tier Excellency the Countess of Stradbrokc. The Club 

28 Field WttturtlH$£ Club — Proceedings. [v^xxxix. 

was again unfortunate in having to hold it* flower show, for 
the second year in succession, in a small hall, but expects to 
be in a better position in future, To all those who helped so 
heartily in making this event the great success it was the com- 
mittee extends its very best thanks and more particularly to 
the ladies, who did such good work. By this exhibition £50 
was added to the Club lands, which must be considered very 
good indeed. 

"The Plant Names Committee is still pursuing its labours, 
and has nearly completed the work of revising the vernacular 
names. The task has been more difficult than the ordinary 
member would think, and the question of deciding what form 
the publication 'should take has required considerable thought. 
However, with £f50 in hand for publishing, there should vow 
be no difficulty in securing a publisher a5 soon as the final 
revision is completed. 

M The thirty -eighth volume of the Club's journal, the 
Victorian Naturalist, has been published, and, under the able 
cditoiship of Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, still holds a prominent 
place among kindred publication*. That it is favourably 
regarded in other countries is shown by the frequent requests 
that are received to exchange with kindred societies and institu- 
tions. Your Committee desires to place on record its 
appreciation of the untiring devotion to the work of producing 
the Club's journal displayed by its honorary editor for so 
many years. 

"to* Mr. P. R. ft St John, who has had charge of the 
Club's library lor some considerable time, the committee would 
extend its very best thanks for the capable way in which he 
has carried out the duties. 

M Another office-bearer who has served the Club well i-s Mr. 
F. Fitcher, to' whom all are deeply indebted for the very- 
thorough and painstaking way in which he has kept the 

" The finances of the Club are once, moie in a sound portion, 
and this despite the high cost of printing, postage, &c, The 
treasurer's report shows that wc have a credit balance of 
£219 45. nd. in our ordinary account, besides £150 set aside for 
the printing of the 4 Plant Names List.' 

" In conclusion, your committee desire to express their thanks 
to members generally for their loyalty and assistance in cariymg 
on the work of the Club, and trust they will extend it to the 
incoming committee. 

" On behalf of the Committee, 

"F. Chapman. President. 
" Chakiis Ore, Hon, Sac 

" Melbourne, June, 1922." 




Field Naturalists 1 Club — Proceedings. 

The reception of the report having been carried, it was 
moved by Mr. E. E. Pescott, F.L.S., and seconded by Mr. G. 
Coghill, that the report be adopted, the latter remarking on 
the continued success of the Club and its growing popularity. 
The motion, on being put, was carried unanimously. 


The hon. treasurer (Mr. F. Pitcher) presented the financial 
statement for 1921-2, which was as follows : — 

To Balance, 30th April 1921 .. .. .. .. £32 19 10 

,, Subscriptions — 

Ordinary Members .. .. ^123 9 

Country Members .^ .. 34 6 

Associate Members . . . . 326 

" £ 




,, Victorian Naturalist — 

Subscriptions and Sales .. 10 9 6 

Advertisements . . . . 300 


Reprints . . . . . . 2 17 10 




,. Sales of Badges .. 




,, Donations — 

Publishing Fund 




,, Interest — Savings Bank and War Loan 




,, Discount 




, — ._ 

— 199 tO 5 

,, June Exhibition — 






Sales of Plants and Flowers 

J 9 




l 4 

Refund by Microscopical Society 1 , 



— a c n i 

y^ u 

,, Wild-flower Exhibition — 

Admissions , . . . , , . , 




Sales of Plants and Flowers 




Refreshments . . 



— 195 IO ! 


£523 6 7 

* Subscriptions : — Arrears, £19 ; 1921-2, £1 32 

17s. ; 


/8 15S. — total, ^160 3 35. 


By Victorian Naturalist-^- 

Printing ..' £122 15 5 

Illustrating 7 10 ir 

Free Reprints . . f . . . . 8 2 8 

Reprints Charged . . 284 





, , Victorian Naiurahsl — ■ 

Wrapping and Posting 




,, Rooms — Rent and Attendance 



Carried forward . . £ 




30 Fields 'aturalisis* Club—Pfoceeedings. [voi^xxxix. 

Brought forward . &f$ id 9 t 

By Library — 


,, Hire of Lantern . . 
,, Printing 

,, Postages, &c. 

„ June Exhibition — 

Hall and Attendance, &c. 
■ Printing and Advertising 
Purchase Flowers' and Plants 
Microscopical Society — Part Proceeds 

„ Wild-flower Exhibition- 
Hall and Attendance, &c. 
Printing and Advertising 
Purchase of Flowers and Plants 

,, Deposit on Rent of Hall for June Exlubition 

Deposit in Savings Bank 
Balance in Savings Bank 
Balance in London Bank 

* Kent of hall, £iH, included in previous balance-sheet. 

F. PITCHER, Hon. Ircamrcr, 
2yd May, 1922. 

Audited and found correct. 

A. G. HOOKE, ) Auditors. 

23rd May. 3922. . 
The following statement of assets and liabilities was also 
read': — 


Balance Savings Bank and London Bank . . ^219 4 u 

War Loan Bond .. .. .. .. .. 20 o o 

Arrears of Subscriptions {£60), say . . *. 30 o 
Badges on hand .. ,. .. - ., .. 1 \y 6 
Library and Furniture (Insurance Value) .. 150 o o 
Deposit in Savings Bank for Plant Names Publica- 
tion . . . . - .' . . ... . . 150 o o 




_ — 

~ ~ 









— J 









. , 




-, . 
















, , 

. . 













22. . 






















£$7* 2 5 


Subscriptions paid in advance .. .. ... $ x> p 

Donation to Chax-a-bajic Excursion Fund . H 10 o o 

Deposit for Plant Names Publication .. .. 150 o o 

£168 15 o 

Ktt] Fi * lA tftfwrffatf Club— Proceedings. $x 

On the motion of Messrs. E. E. Pescott, F.L.S , aud C. 
Coghill, the statements were received and adopted. 


On a ballot being taken for the position of president, Mr, C. 
Daley, B.A., F.L.S., was duly elected ; for two vice-presidents, 
Messrs. F. Chapman, A.L.S., aud E. E. Pescott, F.L.S., were 
elected. The following office-bearers, being the only nomina- 
tions, were declared duly elected : — Hon. treasurer, Mi*. F. 
Pitcher; hon. librarian, Mr P, R. H. St. John; hon. editor, 
Mr. F. G. A. Barnard ; hon. secretary, Mr. C. Oke ; Jion. 
assistant secretary and librarian, Mr, H, B. Williamson. 

On a ballot being taken for five members of committee, 
Messrs. C, L. Barrett, C.M.Z.S J, Gabriel J. Seailc, C. S, 
Sutton,, M.B., and A. J. Tadgell were duly elected. 

A vote of thanks to the auditors was carried by acclamation, 
on the motion of Messrs. Pescott and Daley. 

On the motion of Messrs. G. Coghill and A. D. Hardy, a hearty 
vote oE thanks was accorded to the past office-bearers. 

The newly-elected president, Mr C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., 
returned thanks for the honour done. him. 


The retiring president, Mr. F. Chapman, then delivered a 
presidential address, which was as follows:— 


In addressing yon to-night, at the close of tins year's very 
pleasant association, I would like to congratulate you as a 
Club m having so many indefatigable workers among its 
members, helping so largely to keep the society in the fore^ 
front with similar institutions. My own personal debt to the 
Club 'is very'great, especially in regard to the valuable insight 
into Australian outdoor life since when, twenty years ago, 
as a new chum, I first joined in the excursions. 

Perhaps one of the hardest tasks the committee has to under- 
take is the framing of the excursions programme. But .this 
work is always very much facilitated when members notify 
the secretary of any interesting observation grounds or spots 
newly opened that may afford something for 1 study in any of 
the subjects winch come within the scope of the Club An 
important point to beat in mind in any field club is trie 
endeavour to maintain the balance of the various branches. 
So that no one section should unduly predominate, it might 
be worth arranging for a quarterly programme' — a method 
which works very well in other societies. Certainly things 
have improved since the time when our former president, Dr. 

32 Field Naturalists' Club — Proceeding, [wTi^xxxlx. 

T~ S. Ftal) r remarked that " Ohce the members were all for 
orchids; later on there was an attack of microscopic fever: 
and now the air is full of feathers.' - ' 

In a club such as ours papers submitted for reading should 
rjot be too technical. It was a famous French mathematician 
and physicist who said that no discovery was really important 
or properly understood by its author unless and until he could 
explain it to the first man he met in the street. The popularisa- 
tion of science works both ways It helps the scientist to 
clarify his own knowledge, and at the same time enables the 
nniniciatcdto enjoy that which he has some Jight to. And 
moreover, when the movement begins to revolve in a virtuous 
circle, the man in the street may be so well informed us to vote 
for a political head winch will respond to the demands for the 
proper recognition of science. To be popularly scientific does 
not imply the use of loose or inaccurate terms, nor does it allow 
any slipshod description. It is enough to quote the names 
of Professors J. Arthur Thomson, L. C. Miall. and Sir E. Kay 
Lankester. and of Drs. Alfred Russcl Wallace and A. E, Shipley, 
to show that scientific accuracy and clear popular exposition 
can legitsrnalely join hands; and so the uninitiated but inter- 
ested followers of science can share in the wondrous secrets of 
earth, air, and sea. 

On these lines the committee are now intending to introduce, 
periodically, descriptive papers on common Victorian nalniul 
history subjects, and one of these will shortly be given on 
"Marine Worms/' Other subjects that suggest themselves 
might be on *' Spiders *nd Their Webs," "Common Volcanic 
Rocks, "Shells iff Short; Sand," "Environment of Cater- 
pillars and their Choice of Food Plants/' " Snakes and Lizards, * 
" Stones of Hie Street," " Birds m Relation to the Farmer and 
Orchardist," "Plant Association." 

One gooo result sometimes accruing from the work of a- held 
club is the discovery of an occasional enthusiast who desires 
to take up some branch of nature study- Many of our older 
members would be only too pleased to put these young recjuits 
in the way of future work and to further their studies, for they 
recognize the possibility of a latent Darwin coming to hghl 
in the natural history club. 

Many of our common marine objects still require elucidation 
in the hands of workers who will devote themselves to steady 
observation and research* In this connection one might 
point out that tire important groups of the Ostracuila, the 
Eoraminifcra. and the Polyzoa arc still wanting some more 
'■atr.est students, and in regard to the two first-named sections 
I would be only too glad tn further their work in reference to 
lireratule- and technique. When a request for special work 

T " I j y ; J ] 'wi(J Naturalist!.' Club — ProQtedings. 33 

is made, one often hears the reply, " I am too busy." Yet I 
call to mind how my old friend Joseph Wright, of Belfast, in 
the midst of a busy life as a city grocer, found time to do a 
vast amount of work 01*1 the Irish Foraminifera, both fossil 
and recent. A waiter In a hotel at Deal, a fashionable watering- 
place in Kent, iu rhe midst of a strenuous calling, excelled in 
the preparation and mounting pi seaweeds as microscopic 
objects. W. H Shrubsole, of Shtppey, England, was a high 
authority on the fossils of the London elay, and discover! the 
pyiiti/ed diatoms in the Eocene of his local clay beds. I 
remember calling upon- him during business hours at Jits* 
grocer's shop and enjoying a five minutes' chat upon micro- 
scopic fossils. As if the grocery line is conducive to nature 
study, let me cite another enthusiast; Benjamin Harrison, of 
Jghtham, in Kent. He it was who discovered and explored 
the subject of the "Old Brownies," the eoliths of the South 
Downs; which are now accepted by nearly all anthropologists 
as veritable artefacts. Our late friend and fellow-member 
Mr. J.' H. Young, whilst following the occupation of farmer 
and gra^ier, found time to do mitch good work in palse- 
ontological discovery, which will hand his: name down to future 
generations as that of a. particularly gifted collector of small 
and often obscure fossil forms. 

As a corollary of this medley of observation of a domestic 
character, I wow Id like to impress on members, and especially 
the younger ones, th? value of taking notes. Time and again 
all of us have come upon certain phases of life — curious incidents 
and strange occurrences 111 the field — but they soon pass from 
mind. Once cultivate the advice of Captain Cuttle — n When 
found make a note of" — and the habit will prove of the 
greatest value as the years go on- 

And now, may I give you some observations and musing* 
written down- this year whilst un holiday at Torquay, which 
I entitle g 

M *T*fper Bass Sxkait and Sovthern Ocean." 
lit the dimly remote past the shore-line which bounds sea 
and land was ordained to be the wrestling-ground for all 
living things, and so it lias, in a measure, continued to the 
present time. Perhaps it is this ancestral relationship which 
exerts upon some of us a magnetic attraction towards our 
primeval dwelling-place of shore nnd cliff. Here we find the 
adjustment-line of crumbling crap and consolidating sea-bed. 
The rocky framework, conforming to natural laws, exhibits 
many lines of beauty, arid no more entrancing picture can be 
imagined than a glimpse of the ocean, 

" Purple with white ptptffc blended/' 

34 FirJfl Naturalists' Club— Proceeding*. [v^l xvxix 


through a naUually-formed rock-arch, or framed between chft 
and julting rock-stack. (Se? plate i.) 

Chesterton says " the most beautiful part of -every picttue 
if> the frame." The so-called "boundless sea/' from the 
onlookers point of view, seems to be held in by a partial frame- 
work of shore-line, and the picture of the ever*clrangetul ocean 
is certainly enhanced by its setting. The fringing sandy 
beaches, in turn, arc followed by a, line of frowning headlands 
and beetling cliffs, which are suggestive both of power and 
repose ; and these by undulating dunes, which, with their 
graceful lines, form another part of this framework- Much of 
the beauty of this seaboard of the Southern Ocean lies in its 
diversity of sculpture and coloured inlays, which, like a well- 
chosen frame, sets off the picture it surrounds. 


Alternations of Coastal Lcvefc, 

One Of the contributing factors of the wonderful sceneiy of 
many parts of the Victorian_coast-line is the instability of the 
coastal rock-formations, whether granite bluff. limestone 
headland, or marly cliff. But if Nature takes 1 with one hand 
she liberally disburses with the other, and the. see-saw prin- 
ciple of geological action — or, in other words, the compensatory 
movements of the heaving bosom of Mother Earth— is clear 
to all who have studied the rudiments of geology. Should a 
boring he put down in an e-stuarinc country in order to test 
for a solid foundation, say for bridge-building, the chances 
are that one would encounter vast thicknesses of mud, sands, and 
pebbles which have- been originally laid down near to sea-level. 
Why are these- shallow-water muds and sands now found at 
such great depths ? — such, for example, as the old river muds 
of the Mitchell and Nicholson Rivers, which, m the Jattcr case, 
were penetrated when pile-driving for the railway bridges. 
The only possible explanation is supplied ny the conception 
of a mobile earth-crust which will give way or sag down on 
being overloaded — in this case" by river sediment. Such down- 
ward movement is often followed by periodic lava- Hows until 
equilibrium is again established. Much the same thing takes 
place when the distracted cook allows the fruit-juice to hoil 
over th<* pie-crust. In the geological event the weight and 
friction caused by the slipping of the earth's crust is the cause 
of the boiling-over 6i volcanic lavas. When one part of the 
coast subsides it is only natural to expect thai other parte will 
be elevated, owing to earth waves induced by lateral pressure, 
And thus one portion of the coast-line, and sometimes the 
land-surface behind, will rise, whilst The adjacent part will 
stnk, even below the sea-level. In one case we may have a 
submerged river delta on which the sea.enci caches, as in Port 

F. C Photo. 



Plate ii. 

July, 1922. 

JJjjQ Field Naturalists' Ctuh— Proceedings 3* 

Phillip Bay, and in the other headlands, rolling downs, ami 
high cliffs, such as we may notice along the eastern side of the 
Otway coast as far as Torquay — that particular part of Victoria, 
which has suggested the remarks that follow 

- ' - '- Coastal Folds and Convulsion!,. 
As we' 

'"Saw the great rollers sunder, 

Rambo\v*-wreathed, at oiiT.tect; 
Htard, with a ceaseless thunder, 
• ' -Earth aud'the ocean meet," 

how- lew of us realized that the old sea -bed has risen along (he 
coast-line like a huge leviathan from the vasty deep j From 
Cape Otway to the Bird Rock cliffs, south of Torquay, this 
emergence is seen in the beetling cliffs, some 150 to 200 feet 
high.. That some.of this upheaval, together with local faulting, 
has' taken place, within moderately recent times is proved by 
the following observations: — At Jan Juc Creek there is a 
sand- bar at the mouth, which in February, IQ22J was 7 feet 
above high-water mark, Foity feet above this is found a 
covering,, over the beds higher up the creek, of late Pliocene 
ironstone gravel; ■ This was probably laid down in the 
Koseiuskean period, when the land was undergoing pene- 
planation. Now. at Bird Rock cliffs, 50 or 60 chains to the 
soutli -west, the same ironstone gravel occurs at the summit, 
150 feet above high-water mark, showing' an uplift by both 
faulting and folding of over 100 feet. (See plate ii.) 

At Airey's Inlet rbeie is the old Miocene bed, formed of the 
remains L of sea-urchins, sea-mats, and' shells embedded in 
sandrock, and now elevated as an upraised deep-sea formation. 
The carbonaceous beds of Anglcsea show how near to a ligiiht: 
these' sediments approach. Here the higher beds of the cliff 
contain some evidence of coast-line conditions, for they prac- 
tically oscillate between a marine and a terrestrial scjies \ 
some of the layers of chocolate clay contain branching, stem- 
like markings picked out in salts uf iron, and often of a bright 
sulphur-yellow colour. * 

In the Mallee those basement beds have been found to he 
either of the nature of lignite or to consist of carbonaceous 
sands. The Moorlands lignite field in South Australia, near 
the Victorian border, is due to accumulated vegetation laid 
down at this stage. Extensive boring in the Mallee and the 
Riverina riiay yet reveal payable deposits, for there the con- 
ditions arc similar, These beds would tie younger than that 
of the coalfield of Coorabbin. New South Wales, which appears 
to belong to the same hoiizon. as i\\e. Collie field in Western 

Proceeding towards Point Addis, the beds, owing to an 

$0 Field Naturalists 1 Club— Proceeding*, r Via. N*«. 

aiclied fold, are succeeded by a polyscoal and sea-urchin-filled 
limestone. Towards Torquay a strong anticlinal or arch fold 
occurs, where these Miocene polyyxral rocks are beitt over the 
top of the cliff, and so, gradually passing down to tide level, 
finally disappear. These are followed farther along by quite. 
recent sand-dunes. And thus we reach this area of subsidence, 
a basc'lcvclled and sinking country, which is in places 

"A boggy Syrtis — neither sea 
Nor good dry land." 

At intervals it continues practically to the East Gippsland 
coast, with the exception of a few minor elevated areas, $$ at 
Cdpti Schanck, Flinders. Kilcunda, and Bairnsdak. 

Sand Dunes, Old and New. 

Among the most striking features of the Victorian coast are 
the lines uf high sand dunes. So remarkable are these that 
a geologist from England stated that he had not noticed 
anything to compare with them except those of the Arabian 
coast. By watching the incessant sand-drift of the dunes on 
a breezy day one may learn a wonderful lesson in earth- 
sculpture. The grains of sand, borne on the wind to (he highest 
point formed, end their contest against gravitation, and then 
precipitately fall; hence the long slope ami thR steep of a 
sand ripple. The formation of the ripples, of which the sand 
dune is a. gigantic example, is an interesting phase of Nature's 
handiwork At times man steps in and frustrates the ultimate 
removal of the dune as- it travels with the varying wind ft by 
planting marram -grass to fix it to the spot. Were it not for 
systematic ^rass-planting the dune might cause wholesale 
destruction inland, overwhelming gardens and even houses. 

All along the ages we find evidences of the existence of dunes, 
for the cross-bedded freestones of the Devonian and Jurassic 
formations were laid down precisely as were those of Barwon 
Heads to-day. This in itself is a crushing rejoinder to the 
^* catastrophists/' who would maintain that past episodes in 
earth-building were always spasmodic and phenomena]. 
Borings in the Mallee have already shown that many years 
ago dunes formed part of the landscape of the Murray "Gulf 
Region, for fragments of dune-rock have been brought up by 
the drill from varying depths. The old drowned delta of the 
Port Phillip Basin has also rendered remarkable evidence 
through the boring at Sorrento, where it was proved that dune 
upon dune, alternating with mud-flats tilled with the little 
bivalvcd Spi.Mih, ate piled up in that spot to the thickness of 
800 feet, 

1 FoasiHzed Coasfal Scrub. 

Where dunes are forming, we may notice trees and plants 

Jfel Fiiftd Na:uvaHst.% r Club — Proceedings, jjj" 

hemg overwhelmed by the sard. Naturally, the remains of 
bmksn\ r.r Native Honeysuckle, and Tea-tree, being the 
commonest forms of coastal Vegetatiim of a stronger growth, 
will be found -well represented in the old dune-rocks. Such is 
the case on the Brighton and Black. Rock beaches, where the 
iron-sand is the old forerunner of the modern dunes. Hen- 
may be seen, 4£ Braille characters standing out in rebel on a 
cartridge page, the compressed, scaly sterns of prehistoiie 
Banksias, with then fruits ; before now the latter hax'e been 
taken for fossil cucumbers! 

When J>ar\vin, voyaging in the Beagle, came mto King 
George's Sound, he. noticed, at Bald Head, the sand-encrusted 
shrubs ; but it was not until Moseley, of the CtwlUnger, 
described the formation of the encrusted bushes of the Cape IVwi; 
sand-dunes that a concise account of them was published. In 
al) Stages of their encrustation these gaunt stems of pasl 
vegetation stand out — from the sand-coated stem to those in 
which the enclosed stem is decayed and washed away and tbi* 
interior solidified. The organic acid derived from the decay of 
the stem plays an important putt in helping to dissolve the limy 
sand, which is afterward cemented by the mineral solution 
as a crust aTOund the stem. The same process takes ploo- 
in the Sorrento dunes, and this was fully described by Dr. T. S. 
Hall in this journal for root. 

The Sorrento Peninsula is largely covered with the old dune- 
rock which was heaped up some thousands of years ago. The 
age of this rock is approximately fixed by the finding of 
marsupial remains embedded in this ancient dune ; they sat*. 
leierred to the extinct giant kangaroo, Palorchestes, whose 
somewhat formidable name, although signifying " ancient 
dancer/' is perhaps hardly applicable to such a heavily -built 

It was- with some interest that we lately found a patch nf 
similar ancient dune-rock to the -south-west of Bream Creek, 
and, what was perhaps more interesting still, a lagoon deposit 
of travertin resting upon it : pointing to the former outflow of 
springs. Continuing along this part of the coast, not far 
from Spring Creek, Torquay, there fe another remnant of this 
old dune-formation, left in spite of the gnawing action of the 
tides of ten thousand years. It is about fifty yards in extent., 
and shows also the banded travertin deposit laid down by 
spring* and lagoons which have lung since disappeared. At 
Point Roadknight there is a very extensive section of this old 
dune-rock, in places etched and corroded into the most 
fantastic fairy caverns. From the position of this sculptured 
and castellated dune-rock, as it lies exposed to the heat of the. 
tide against the massive Anglesea cMfls, it is unquestionably 

jfi Field Natuvalnls' Ctub—PfOMdin^. [vl k xxxjx. 

mil}' a small remnant of what once foi intiiiy existed. We can 
thus picture how extensive was tbis coast to seaward in 
former times, dating back possibly as much as \en thousand 
years ago. 


Termites and Ants. — Mr. J. A. Hill, of Golton South, I'm 
J.ubeck (N.W. Victoria), contributed a. note rdatirig his ex- 


By Mr. H. v Clinton. — Coccid.T (scale insects) — Enococats 
coriaceus, Mask., Opisthoscehs, sp. ( ? ), Ascelis pr&molh$ t 
Schrader, from eucalyptus ; Dactylopius aurilanatus, Mask., 
from Native Cherry : Psylltda: (Jerp insects)— Spondylaspts 
eucalypti, from eucalyptus — collected on Evelyn excursion, 
under microscope. Malbphaga (bird parasites), collected by 
Mr, C. Oke from Edward Lyre-bird, Men-ura no't)a-holland\<2 
edwavdi, Chisholm, at National Museum, Melbourne, 13/5/22 — 
{a) Degeeriella menuralyrce, Boinde, (b) Menopon memtr'a, Le 
Souef and Bullcn ; also larva of bloionomtts phittipsi, from 
Evelyn excursion, under the microscope. 

By Mr.' A. D. Hardy, — New species of eucalyptus, E. studley- 
Oi-sis, Maiden, from Studley Park, Melbourne, and photograph 
of same ; photograph of Silver Wattle, 32 feet high, on summit 
of Blacks' Spur ; sphagnum moss, from pool in Otway Ranges, 
collected by Mr. E. H. Hatfield. 

By Mr. L. Hodgson. — -Specimen of Lepknpermum scoparhwi, 
var, grandi/lornm rosea, grown from seed found at Berowa, 
N.S.W. ; a rare variety, not recorded since 18 ty, when it was 
giown in England from seed found in New South Wales. 

By Mr. C. Oke. — Twenty-five species of Coleoplera, including 
several undescribed species, colled ed on Evelyn excursion; 
also spiders and phlangids. 

By Mr. E. E, Pescott, F.L.S. — Specimens of two blue-fruited 
Eugenias growing at Melbourne Botanic Gardens — E. oleosa, 
F. v. M. /Queensland), and E. cyanicarpa, P\ v. M. (New South 

By Mr, F. Pitcher. — Puff-baLls, Mitremyecs- fnsca, Berk. — 
beautiful crimson -coloured heads when growing, and with 
discharge of powder on pressure ; collected on Easter excursion 
at To&langi. 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda (on behalf of Geological Survey of 
Victoria). — Slaies, showing coloured markings due to nxidahon. 
from Heathcote district. 

By Mr. A. L. Scott. — Rocks from near Mount Cook Hermitage, 
New Zealand ; water-worn pebbles from same locality ; 
specimens of moraine collected from the surface of the Great 

tew J fi * ld NaiufaliMs' Club— Proceedings. J9 

Tasman Glacier, near Mount Cook.. New Zealand ;' photographs 
of same localities. 

By Mr. A. J. Tadgell. — Seed-pod of a rare Victorian garden 
escapee, but also found in New South Wales and Queensland, 
native of valley of the Mississippi, U.S.A. — MarLynia probos- 
exdea, Elephant's Trunk. 

By Mr. A. J Tadgell (on behalf of Mrs, Coleman).— Fresh 
blooms of orchids, Corysanthes flmbnaia. Fringed Red Helmet, 
and Cfnloglollta diphyUa, Twin-leaf Biid Orchid, collected at 

By Mr. L. Thorn. — Forty species nf insects taken on Easter 
excursion to Toolangi, also photographs of same locality, 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 

Nature Study Exhibition. — The second exhibition (in 
recent years) of specimens by members of the Field Naturalists' 
Club of Victoria was held in the Athenaeum Hall on Tuesday, 
20th June. A very fine display was made by members, but 
it has not been possible to prepare a detailed report in tune 
for this Nataralnt. It is hoped that this will be published 
next month. The exhibition was not quite so well attended 
by the general public as the previous one, but this had its 
advantages, for visitors could the more easily inspect the 
exhibits on this occas'ion. The exhibition was far from being 
a financial loss, and, besides the surplus which the Club will 
derive from it, the sales o[ flowers and plants brought in £7 7s, , 
which has been handed over to the Children s Hospital. 

The Eucai.ytts of Victoiua. — In the recently-issued part 
(vol. .\xxiv., new scries, part 2) of the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society of Victoria, Mr. J. H. Maiden, I.S.O., F.K.S., F.LS,, 
Government Botanist of New South Wales, contributes a 
paper entitled v An Alphabetical List of Victorian Eucalypts."' 
The author credits Victoria with having sixty-two indigenous 
species of eucalypts. He makes the statement that the tree 
originally described from Tasmanian specimens as E. mnygda- 
Una, Labill., has not been proved to occur in Victoria. This 
•will be a surprise to most of our botanists. What we have 
legarded as E. amygdalina 35 really £- radiala, Sicber. or £. 
numcrosa, Maid en • 

The Late Mrs. John Simsok- — It is with great regret that 
we announce the death, on the 30th ult. (her biithday), of 
Mrs. J. Simson, of " Trawalb,/ Tnorak, at the ripe nge of 02. 
Mrs. Simson was elected a member of the Club in July, 1884, 
and was therefore one of its oldest members. She always 
evinced great interest in the Club, and in 1885-6 bad the 
distinction of being one of (wo lady members of the committee. 

4* • f*<#* ' W! rt xfe. 

Tekmites' and Ants. — Mr. James Hill, of Westell Farm. 
Kewell (Wimmeva district), contributed a note on the action 
of some small black ants some time ago On a lK>s^ muggy 
evening at the end of summer he had occasion to shift some 
iawn timber, which, on bang moved, was found to be full of 
the so-called f white ants." termites. Knowing that the small 
black ants were deadly enemies of the termites, and that there 
was a track of them about five yards away, he went over, with 
the hope of being able to jnducc them to attack the termites.^ 
These, by the way, seemed to have a sort of sweet smell arising' 
from them, while what air was moving was in the direction of 
the black ants from where the teimites were. While standing 
thinking how a diversion m the proper direction could be 
induced, he saw the trad: of the black ants suddenly turn in the 
direction of the termites, and in a few seconds the ants were 
among the termites in thousands, soon putting an end to them 
by killing and cutting them up and carrying them off. The 
question to he answered is, Were I he black ants attracted by 
the odour, or did some spy report the presence of the termites 
to the black ants ? 

Australian National Research Cockcji.. — At the meeting 
held in Melbourne last year of the Australasian Association for 
the Advancement of Science, steps were taken to form a council 
of representative scientists under the above name, for the 
purpose of promoting research in Australia, publishing the 
results of scientific investigations, &c. A very representative 
council was appointed, and recently additional members were 
added, among them being Mr. F, Chapman, A,L S., cx-prcsident 
of the Field Naturalists' Club. The council has now decided 
to publish quarterly abstracts of -all scientific work being carried 
on in Australia, whether by Governments or private individuals. 
This will be a great boon to* all workers, no matter in what 
branch they are interested- At present such persons have to 
wait, in most cases, until the annual volumes of societies' 
proceedings are published in order to learn what is going on 
in the next State. It is hoped to issue the fust number of this 
review early in August, previous to the meeting of the Council, 
which is to take place in Sydney in that month. 

Australian Rotti-tsks,- -Mr. J. ShepLard, in an. article in 

the Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria [vol. xxxiv., 
part 2), records 230 species as the census of Australian rollers, 
but acknowledges that, as most of Ih? investigations of this 
group of animal life have been done in the neighbourhood of 
the lar^e cities, probably the number of species to be found in 
Australia is very much larger. 

Che Uictorian naturalist 

You XXXIX.— No. 4. AUGUST 10, 1922. No. £64*. 


The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, ioth July, 1922. 

The president, Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., occupied the chair,, 
and about 50 ' members and visitors were present. 

The president referred to the death since last meeting of 
Mrs. John Simson and Mr. William Stiekland, both oi whom 
had been members of the Club for long periods, The latter 
had contributed to the proceedings and acted as leader of 
excursions on several occasions. He also announced that M" ■ 
A. J, Tadgell had suffered severe bereavement in the death of 
his brother. 

A letter of condolence was ordered to be sent to the relatives 
of the deceased members and to Mr. Tadgell, members standing 
while the motion was put and carried. 



A report of the visit to the Technological Museum, Public 
Library, on Saturday afternoon, 24th June, was given by Mr. 
F. &. A, Barnard, who said that the party of about a dozen 
members had been met by the Curator, Mr. R. H. Walcott, 
who acted as guide for the afternoon and conducted them round 
the exhibits, The attention of the members was directed to 
the more notable objects, such as the specimens of Australian 
minerals, marbles, timbers, &c. The exhibit of grades o{ 
Australian wool, numbering nearly 900 examples, attracted 
some attention, as also the models of fruit suitable for export, 
&c. The collection of foodstuffs was found to be : very complete, 
and manufacturing processes were well displayed. Altogether, 
the members spent a very interesting afternoon, and were well 
repaid for the time given to the visit. 


On a ballot being taken, Miss Muuro, Anzac Hostel, North- 
road, Brighton, and Mr. G. C. Hodgson, P.O.. Meutone South, 
were duly elected a9 ordinary mem hers ; Miss Mary MTntyrc, 
"Laggan." Merino, and Mr. A. J. Williamson, Bank of Vic- 
toria, Dunolly, as country membeis; and Mr. R. E. Gray, 
Dresden-street, Heidelberg, a6 an associate membra*. 


Mr. C. L. Barrett, C.M.2.S., said that a deputation was to 
wait on the Minister of Lands on the following day in order to 

4* FisU Natut&tists* Civb—Proctedings. [v^xxiy. 

oppose the alienation of any portion of Wyperheld Park* an 
area in the Malice recently set aside as a national park, 

Messrs. G. Coghill andE. E. Pescott, F.E.S., were appointed 
to attend on behalf of the Club and urge that no alterations 
be made in the boundaries of the park. 

fin reply to che deputation, the Minister promised that no 
curtailment of the reserve would be made without consulting 
the bodujs interested. — Ep. Vict, Nat.) 

Mr. F. Pitcher announced that the Melbourne Town Hall 
had been secured tor the annual exhibition of wild-flowers op 
Tuesday. 3rd October next. 


By Mr. P. C. Morrison, entitled "A Simple Study of Our 
Common Serpula." 

Owing to the absence of the author, on account of ill-healih, 
the paper was read by Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, 

The author stated the position of the genus Serpula in the 
usual arrangement of the animal kingdom, where it is placed 
in the Annelida, or tube-building worms, He then described 
the main features of the animal, which may be found in great* 
numbers in various places around our bay, encrusting the rocks, 
piles, &c, below low- water mark with its calcareous vermiform 
tubes. He mentioned that Serpulids and their, allies had been 
found as fossils in Victoria, notably S. onyenemis, found in 
borings made at Ouycn, in the Mallee, at a depth of about 600 
feet. Such fossil forms may be a& old as 6o;ooo,ooo years. The 
author remarked that very little work had been done on our 
Victorian forms — in fact, they had not received specific names — 
arid recommended the group as well worthy of attention by 
someone who was at a loss for an object for investigation. 

A number of specimens and parts prepared for microscopic 
examination were exhibited in illustration of the paper. 


Mr. A. J. Tadgell forwarded a note regarding the recent 

finding of the rare Greenhood Orchid, Ptttoslylis Toveyana 
near Mordialloc, In which he remarked how easy it is to pass 
it by for the Common or Trim Greenhood, Pterostylis concitma, 
as it is, vegetativelv, like a robust, dwarf form of that species. 
He had found it an only two neighbourhoods, about three miles 
apart, in 1909 and in 19T0, and it is so elusive that he had not 
seen it again until this year though he had vainly sought for 
it. Dr. Rogers, of Adelaide, told him that " this orchid would 
appear to be m a transitional stage towards specific rank, but 
as yet without sufficient stability • of characters. " It is 
recognized as a hybrid from P. pr&cox (reficxa) and P. concinna. 

IjS'] Fitfl Natwatist? CM— Proceedings. 4j 

In previous years it looked like pracox, with full stem leaves 
and practically no basal leaves. Again, he found it actually 
deceiving him. for eoncinna in external appearance. It is 
recognized principally by the notched labellum, but that 
varies, so that in five plants found this year all together one 
had the tip of the labellum Rectangularly notched evenly, as 
in continna ; another looked as if a neat, tiny spoon had taken 
out a round notch; while two others had scarcely any nick 
at all. These variations, it may be stated, were not due to 
the age of the flower. In answer to a point he raised with Dr. 
Rogeis as to why it is so rare, seeing ttuit we might expect to 
find hybridized forms oi conwma (which is so common) with 
precox (reflexd), which is not uncommon, as both are foimd 
flowering freely together, the doctor takes the view that at 
one time, when they first began to establish themselves, this 
(arm was fairly numerous, and think? there can be no doubt 
that hybrids may become independent of their original parents 
and capable of propagation in the same way as species. 

Mr. L. Thorne contributed a note on his entomological 
observations during the Easter excursion at Toolangi. He said 
that the trip to Toolangi was veiy interesting, and fairly 
successful from an entomological point of view, though, had 
it been a month or two earlier, it would almost certainly have 
been better. There is an abundance of undergrowth every- 
where, and in and on this numerous species of butterflies and 
moths are certnin to be found breeding; but larvae-hunting is 
not very profitable work at this lime of the year The 
Sassafras tree is plentiful in all the gullies, and on this the 
larva of our beautiful Swallow-tailed Butterfly, Papilio 
■m^cleayanus, feeds, and is sxire to be fairly plentiful. One 
chrysalis of this fine Papilio was found attached to the under 
surface of a Sassafras leaf. The chrysalis was attached to the 
leaf by a small silken pad at the tip of its abdomen and a silken 
band around the middle. The. caterpillar had passed a silken 
thread around another leaf, just above the one to which it had 
attached itself, and brought them together to form, a jooHike 
structure Jn this manner it spends the winter, not emerging 
till November or December. Other butterflies taken were the 
Barred Brown, Hderonympha hank$%i, the Ringed Xcwca, Xanax 
acantha, Klug's Xenica, Xenica klugi, and Qrtx&tnw fsershewi. 
Of the twenty -one species of moths taken, the one that caused 
most surprise, by the numbers taken, was Porina nvstyatisi 
of this, seventeen males and one female were successfully 
captured, Two other Hepialids taken were Pram patyspiia 
and Oncoplera inlricata. Several species of Geometers wetv. 
taken, including three Emeralds. A female of that interesting 
dipterous fiy t BohoUUs sitbulatm. was taken on a log at night 

44 Field Naturuliti& K Ctub—Ptoc&tdings. [v<l* xxxix. 

time by the aid of an electric torch. This " twa-wjnged " fly 
has wingless females, .though the male has wings as usual. 


By Mr A- Allaway. — Atlas Math. Attacus atlas, from Northern 

By Mf. C. Okc. — A case of insects, principally Lepidoptera. 
from Belgrave, collected during Easter. 

By Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S., on behalf of National Museum. 
—Tube of Trachyderma, sp, ( from the Silurian in Punt-road, 
South. Yarra, and gill-plumes of Trachyderma, sp,, from the 
Silurian, Hawthorn Main Dram — both collected by Mr. F. P. 
Spry. These serve to illustrate Mr. Morrison's paper on 
Serpulids, being two very interesting fossil specimens of a tube- 
making worm, allied to the Sabellids — namely, Trachyderma ( 
found rather abundantly in the bedrock of Melbourne. One 
of these consists of a tube, originally made of mud and organic 
slime, whilst in the piece of fine mudstone is shown to perfection 
the beautiful prostomial gill?- of the worm as they were laid out 
on the mud and now preserved in a carbonaceous him. This 
specimen is one of the few of which wc know where the soft 
parts of the animal are so well preserved, and may date back 
about sixty millions of years. 

By Mi". E. E. Pescott. F.L.S. — A crotriche fasciculi flora, F. v. 
Iff., the " Bundled Ground-Berry/ 1 Mount Lofty, South Aus- 
tralia, showing the remarkable habit of bearing flowers in great 
bunches at ground level ; found only in South Australia, and 
exhibited on behalf of Field Naturalists' Club of South Aus- 
tralia. Cultivated plant of Dtrndrobium anwlum, R. Br., native 
of New South Wales and Queensland. Pisonia Brmioniarra. 
EndL, " Bird-catching Plant/ 7 native to New South Wales, 
Queensland, Norfolk Island, and New Zealand j grown at 
Melbourne Botanic Gardens; and Eucalyptus loyquata. J. G. 
Luehmann, the " Coolgardie White Gum," showing decoiative 
character of buds, grown at Melbourne Botanic Gardens. 

By Master C Ralph. — Egyptian Scarab, found in crypt of 
an Egyptian pyramid. • 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda, on behalf of Geological Survey of Vic- 
toria. — Talcose clay, from Gaflncy's Creek; asterized or star 
quartz, from Coleratne ; also photographs of birds — viz., White- 
shafted and Rufous Fantails, Mountain Thrush, Yellow-breasted 
Robin, and Lyre-bird, from Walhalla district 

By Mr. A. L. Scott.— Pebbles from beach of Lake Rotorua, 
N.Z. ; sulphur -coated grit from hot spring on beach. Lake 

By Mr. I.. Thorn. --Seventy-two species of Victorian butter- 
flies, with 19 kinds of empty chrysalid cases, from which perfect 
insects had emerged. 

mST 1 ] EUli Natuminte 1 Club — Ptvcwdings. 45 

By Mr. H. B. Williamson, F.L.S. — Flowering specimens of 
Gippsland Heath Myrtle, Thryptotnem miqueliana, F, v. M \ 
and Pine Heath, Aslroloma fiinifaliu, Benlh „ collected at 
Bairnsdale by Mr. T. S. Hart, M.A. 

After the usual eonveisaztone the meeting terminated. 


The visit to the Toolangi district at Easte^ 1922, was the 
third which the Club has made to that locality. Toolangi 
(about 45 miles from town) is situated at the foot of Mount 
St. Leonard, on the crest of the Dividing Range, about 14 miles 
north of Healesville, As a place for those who want to roam 
among big timber or struggle through dense ujideigrowth it 
cannot be excelled. Our party was small, but none the less 
enthusiastic in its desire to explore the land. We left town 
by the evening tram on Thursday, 13th April, and in due 
course reached our quarters at "Laurel Grove " late the same 
evening. This we found to be on the northern side of the 
Divide, and not far from the ever-running Yea River. Hs^tt 
we were well cared for and cheerfully welcomed on qui return 
from the various walks taken. Good Friday was devoted to a 
walk to the well-known Sylvia Falls, which we found somewhat 
difficult, as the tracks have been allowed to become almost 
impassable on account of fallen timber. The winter snows 
have also brought down the saplings and other shrubbery, so 
that progress was slow. However, we were compensated for 
our difficulties by the magnificent vegetation on every side. 
The next day we secured the services of a resident as guide, 
and made the longer trip to Myrtle Gully — a trip of surpassing 
loveliness so fax as the vegetation is concerned. Huge 
eucalypts, myrtle-beeches, sassafras, &c, with tree-ferns ad 
libitum, made a picture not easily forgotten, while trampled 
under foot were scores of smaller ferns of many species. Coral 
Ferns and Star Ferns wreathed the bushes on either side of the 
track. Though the distance was not great, the difficulties of 
the way were such, and there was so much to admire, that 
darkness had closed in before we got back to " Laurel Grove." 
Sunday morning was spent quietly , in the afternoon we visited 
Blue Mountain, situated off the Myers* Creek (Healesville) 
road. This commands line views of the Healesville and 
Warburton country, and on clear' days Melbourne is within the 
range of vision. Easter is perhaps the worst time of year 
for wild flowurs in Victoria, so that it was with feelings of 
regret wc noted that hereabouts seemed to be tKu best locality 
for wild-flowers that we had seen. A scrap of Tetratheca and 

.*/"> Br&tY5U>ft to Toolangt [y%L*kxxix 

a flower o! Correa (red vancty) was all wc could find, Monday 
was rather close and hot, and little was done, However, the 
pretty little Lawrence Falls were visited. These we found 
set in a framework of ferns, which made them particularly 
attractive. Our final day (Tuesday) was showery, and "the 
round trip," as it is known, had to be abandoned* Mr. A. E. 
Keep, who stayed a iew days longer, and was joined by Mr 
and Mrs. Pitcher, informs me that they accomplished "the 
round trip" an the next day, and had a most interesting outing. 
Birds were much more numerous than on other days. Near 
one of the mills they saw a flock of Crimson Lories, Plalycercm 
ilegans, numbering at least one hundred, making such a feast 
of colour in the bright sunlight as they had nevej seen before. 
The <( round trip" encircles a hill locally known as "Mount 
Tanglefoot," which is so called from the quantity of Prostnnthera 
msliasifolia growing on its slopes, forming an almost impene- 
trable tangle. This, when in tlower, is said to be a most 
delightful sight, the quantities of pale liiac Bowers making a 
scene worth going miles to sec. Our entomologist was well 
satisfied with his captures, and proposes to furnish his own 
account of the outing. — G. Nokes. 

[Previous trips to Toolangi will be found recorded in the 
Naturalist for February, 1910 (xxvi., p.. 144), and March, 
1918 (xxxiv., p, 173). Mr, Thome's notes re the entomology 
<A the trip appear on page 43 of this issue. — Ed. Vict Nal t ] 

The Late Mr. William Stickland. — It is with great regret 
that we record the death, at the age of 72, of Mr. Wm. Stickland 
on the 5th ult. He was one of the early members of the Club, 
having been elected in July, 1885. His hobby was pond-life, and 
tits only paper lead before the Club (in September, 1894) was 
on that subject, it was entitled "The Rotifer in' Melbourne, " 
and described the results of a dip in the pond in the Treasury 
Gardens, now known as the Japanese Lake, during luncheon 
hour. His captures on that occasion were described in an 
entertaining manner in the Naturalist for October, 1S94 
(vol. ,\i., p. roo). He, with his brother, Mr, Jno. Stickland; 
led many excursions to various places for a like purpose. He 
was by profession a wood-engraver, and the Naturalist contains 
two or three specimens of his work in the earlier volumes, 
before process engraving was adopted for illustrations. For 
some years he acted as assistant librarian and secretary to the 
Royal Society, for which his knowledge of scientific books and 
other publications made him well suited. 

l Correction. — In Julv Naturalist the words in line 25, page 
3S, should follow ?' N.S.W." in line 28. 

*J* j Natur* Study Exhibition. 47 


The exhibition of specimens by members u/ the Club in June, 
1921. having proved 50 attractive, it was decided to hold a 
similar exhibition Ibis year, and the Athenaeum, Collins-street, 
was engaged for the afternoon and evening of Tuesday, .20t.l1 
June, for the purpose, On this occasion the Microscopical 
Society did riot share in the venture, hut several members -o! 
the Club undertook the exhibition of specimens under 

The president of the Club, Mr. Ciias Daley. F.L.S., in asking 
Sir Baldwin Spencer, K.C.M.G., to declare the exhibition open, 
said that Sir Baldwin was not unacquainted with the histoiy 
of the Club and its work, for he was a past president of the 
Club, and had taken part in three or four of its notable 

Sir Baldwin Spencer, in declaring the exhibition open, 
thanked the Club for giving him the oppoit unity of assisting 
in om of its functions again, and said how much he was indebted 
to the Club and its members for helpful information when he 
arrived as a novice from England some thirty-five years before. 
He referred to the attitude the Club had taken up in securing 
the protection of both animal and vegetable- life, for which it- 
was to be commended. At the same time, he often wondered 
whether the right birds or animals were being protected, and 
instanced the Laughing Jackass. This bird he had watched 
a good deal, *and considered it an absolute "smoodger." S<> 
far as its habits were concerned, it was not worth protecting, 
but it had got into their good graces by now and again killing 
a snake, and so being considered useful ; but how many young 
birds and eggs did it take from other birds' nests ? Again, 
he had never hesitated to capture an insect and put it in' a 
killing bottle j yet he did not know whether some of these were 
not useful, and should be protected. He pointed out how- 
investigation was still required with regard to our rapidly- 
disappearing fauna and flora,, and urged workers to take up 
certain lines of study and endeavour to learn all they could 
regarding the various forms before it Was too late. 

The attendance of the public was not quite so large as had 
been expected, but it had its compensations, for the exhibits 
could be examinee! in greater comfort than had the hall been 
crowded, as on the previous .occasion. 

The- range of exhibits was very wide, and details given must 
not be considered by any means complete, as many of the 
exhibitois failed to hand in particulars of their specimens. 

Botany.— Midwinter is not the best time for a display of 
wild-ilowcrs ; yet, owing to the organization of Mr. H. B. 
Williamson.. F.L.S., they made quite a feature in the hall. 

4$ Nature Study Exhibition. [v^xxxix. 

About seventy five species (not including oichids) were on 
exhibition, about three-fourths of which were Forwarded from 
Bairnsdalc and Bendigo by Messrs T. S. Hart, M.A., and D. J. 
Pat on- The former collection included Rubus tosifolius, /?. 
parvifoltus, Isopogon ancmonifolttts, Bessie- a hetero-phyila, Zorrm 
alba, C spcciosa (red variety), the Sunshine Wattle, A t 4iseo}or. 
and early flowers of the Sweet Bursaria, B. spinosa, Among 
Mr. Paton's flowers were the Blue Mallee, Eucalyptus frutict' 
torum, Green Mallee, E. viridis, Shrub Violet, Bvbcmtkus fion- 
bundus, Fairy Waxflowcr, Boronta fotygalijolta, and six species 
<>t Acacias— viz., lanigcya, luteald, armata diffusa, pyenantha, 
and vvimrifimms. From Miss Mackenzie, of Boronia, came 
about a dozen species, among which were Acacia myrtt/plia 
and Epacris microphylla. Miss Dyall, of Garfield, forwarded 
some hnc dark crimson Epacris, as also did Mr. Fairnie, of 
Moyston, from Mount William (Grampians). The acting 
director of the Botanic Gardens furnished SOtiie fine pot plants, 
&c M for platform decoration. A large quantity of * Crimson 
Berry." Cyathodts accrosa {Styphdia oxycedrys) (Epacridx). ha( i 
been promised by the Tasmanian Tourist Department, but, un- 
fortunately, owing to a stake, the steamer's saibng was delayed, 
and only some brought over by an earlier steamer was avail- 
able. This was very much admired, and sold readily. Mr 
I sing, of the South Australian Field Naturalists' Soiety, and 
Mrs. Page, of Myponga, S.A ., also forwarded flowers, but 
unfortunately they were delayed on the railways, and did not 
teach Melbourne till next day. A tastefully-arranged display 
of orchids was made by Mrs Coleman, who exhibited about 
twenty species, including the rare Banded Greenhood, Ptero- 
siylis viHata, which had been collected at Point Lonsdale by 
Mr. G. Arnnt, sen. A collection of mounted specimens of 
common weeds was exhibited by Mr. A. J. Tadgell, while Mr. 
T. Green exhibited a number of splendid photographs of orchids 
and other flowers as stereoscopic objects, and a large case of 
seed- vessels of Western Australian shrubs and leaves was shown 
by Miss Amy Fuller. 

ConcholoGY. — Mr. C- J, Gabriel had an extensive display of 
shells, both Australian and foreign, also several educative 
exhibits, such as the common shells of our sea beaches, the 
largest and smallest Victorian shells, the way in which I he 
animal repairs its home, &c 

Entomology. — Mr. H. Clinton, bird parasites (Mallophaga), 
under microscopes; Mr. J. E. Dixon, four cases of buprestid 
or jewel beetles, Mr. C. French, jnn., four cases of injurious 
insects ; Mr, C Oke, case each of scarabid and buprcsttd 
beetles, also aberrant wingless fly, parasitic on bat (under 
microscope) , Mr. F. P. Spry, three cases of ants ; Mr. L. Thorn, 
two cases of moths and butterflies and case of cicadas; Mr. 


Mature Study Exhibition. 49 

F. E. Wilson, oases of longicorn and ladybird beetles, also small 
pselaphid beetles (under microscope); National Museum, two 
cases of wasps and nests and two cases of foreign beetles, 

Ethnology. — Mr. C< Daley, F.L.S., aboriginal stone imple- 
ments; Mr. E. E. Pescott, H X.S V case of stone implements 
and spcar-heads. 

Geology and Paleontology.- -Mi. F. Chapman, A.L.S., 
Cambrian fossils, showing anatomical structure, from British 
Columbia ; fossil and recent Foramirufera from the Antarctic, 
Mr. S, R Mitchell, minerals and crystals; Mr. A, E. Rodda, 
banded Silurian rocks, from Heathcotc ; Mr. F. A. Singleton, 
M.Sc., evidence of radio-activity in rocks, and quartz crystals 
with included bubbles. MissI.Crespin, BA„ moulds and casts 
of fossils in ironstone and chert, with method of reproducing 
oiiginals in wax ; fossihierous lirnestuties with forummifera, 
&c. Miss K. M- MTnerny, M.Sc., minerals under microscope 
with polarized light. Mr. F. Cudmore, 13 cases of fossil shells 
from Mornington-Frankston district ; three of fossil shell* 
from rocks at Torquay ; case of Victorian Trigoniai (five fossil 
species, one living) ; four cases of fern impressions in Palaeozoic; 
rocks; two case* of teeth (mostly sharks) from Beaumaris, 
&c. : three cases illustrating formation of casts, moulds, and 
petrifactions; also petrified wood, fossil bone, oysters, &c. 
Mr- C. Daley. F L.S., minerals associated with gold, also 
photographs of Victorian and Tasmanian scenery, lent by 
respective Tourist Bureaux, 

Ornithology. — Director of National Museum, mounted 
specimens of some of the larger Victorian birds* 

Pond and Shore Life. — Mr. J. Searle and Miss J. Raff, 
M.Sc, and friends had interesting displays under raicroscopts. 

ZOOLOGY.— Director of National Museum, mounted speci- 
mens of kangaroos, platypus, &c. 

Microscopy. — Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.R.M.S., botanical sections, 
including autoparasitism of Cassylha melanlka ; intercalation 
of cork layer between stem and leaf-st^ck of a deciduous plant 
preceding fall of leaf ; defensive armory of stellate 3nd branched 
cellulose hairs on cells of floating water-lily leaf, presumably 
a protection against water-snails, &c. ; pollen grains of eucalypts 
and other Myrtacese, Epacris, Acacias, &c. ; cuticle specimen* 
showing stoma ta hi various arrangements, usually on under 
sides of leaves, but on both sides in eucalyptus, and m grooves 
in leafless stem and branches of Casuarina. 

The sale of pot plants (native shrubs) and flowers, under the 
direction of Miss. A. Fuller, realized £7 75., which was foj warded 
to the Children's Hospital. 

The final result of the exhibition, to which a charge wa* 
made, is not complete, but there will be a credit balance of 
several pounds. 

52 Davjvy, Introduction and Spread of Noxious $e$fs* ("v^xxxix. 

to control controls. Nature does not exterminate species, and 
therefore the very most that could be hoped for won Id possibly 
he a lessened seed production on the part of St. John's Wort. 
The most important tiling In weed-control Is first to prevent 
weed seeds entering a country, and secondly, to prevent seed- 
production by those weeds' already in the country. Onc.e pest 
plants are introduced they spread themselves over the country 
by several means, As is well known, the seeds of many plants 
are furnished with a special adaptation that enables them to 
be earned long distances through the air by the wind. 
Familiar examples of wind- home seeds are Dandelion, 
Taraxacum officinale. Prickly Lettuce, LgMucq scariola, Thistles 
(Carduus), and Stinkwort, Inula graveolens. Owing to the sticky 
nature of the latter plant it not only arrests an enormous 
number of its own seeds, but also thai: of many other species, 
and especially those of thistles. Other seeds often distributed 
by wind are those of a dust-like nature, such as thos^ of Poppies 
(Papaver). These, on account of their small size, are caught 
up by the wind and scattered over wide areas. 

Seeds Carried by Farm Produce. 
Hay and chaff are the media by which many bad weeds are 
disseminated, and the spread of St. John's Wort has been in 
very many instances due to the seeds of this plant having been 
included in hay or chaff that was fed to horses. This can 
readily be seen by the way in which St. John's Wort has fol- 
lowed railway construction. In fact, any place that has been 
used for any length of tune as a caniping;ground for horses in 
the North- East of Victoria, there this plant can usually be 
fauud growing. In some notable instances these camping- 
grounds have been the starting-places for the further spread of 
this weed over very large tracts of country 

Seeds Carried by Water. 

Flood waters distribute seeds of plants over* wide areas, and 
are one of Nature's methods for the dispersal of species, both 
animal and vegetable. The seeds of many bad weeds are sptx?<»d 
in this manner, as also by rivers and streams. Probably 
irrigation channels- are the worst of all 'offenders with water- 
borne seeds. These channels run through many miles of 
country., carrying seeds of many species of weeds on the surface 
of the water, some of which find lodgment on the banks, where 
they usually find congenial conditions for their growth. These 
plants later on shed seeds into the water, so that when water 
is taken from these channels fori irrigation purposes these seeds 
ate distributed over- the irngable lands, and are a menace to alt 
Jand-owners iii the areas " served by these* channels. Seed : 

A $*] Davby, Introduction and Spread of Noxious WW.*. $J 

dispersion by irrigating water would be considerably reduced 
if the weeds were destroyed on the banks of these channels 
or not allowed to produce seeds, as usually they now &n» 

Seeds Carried bV Stock. 

Stock ate- famous weed-carriers. Many seed'vessels. arc 
specially provided with hooked processes that enable them to 
cling tightly to the coats of animals. The Bathurst Burr, 
Xanthium spinosum^ is a common example of this class of seed. 
These may be carried Long distances before the seeds are shed 
from their hooked receptacles. 

Stock spread the seeds of many plants by feeding on weeds 
that are carrying ripe seeds, which pass through the digestive 
tract and remain viable. Dodder (Cuscuta), is often spread 
to clean areas in this manner. Many bad weeds, carrying ripe 
seeds., become entangled in the fleeces of. travelling sheep. 
These seeds often are not shed until v<?ry long afterwards. 
The great spread of St. John's Wort is undoubtedly largely' due 
to stock movements, and it is probably owing to the*" facility 
with which this seed is carried by travelling sheep that this plant 
has become so widely spread, both here and in New South 
Wales, Rabbits also spread this and other small seeds by 
dashing through masses of weeds, so causing the ripe seeds to 
shower down on their fur f the seeds later on to fall or be 
scratched nut, this often at long distances aw3y from where 
the plants were growing. 

The seeds of Boxthorn, Lycimn honidwn, and Blackberry, 
Rubus fmticosus, are being widely spread by birds, the 
imported Starling being a great offender in this respect, thus 
adding to its already long list of offences. 

Stable Manure. 

Stable manure, unless composted and well rotted before 
being applied to the land, is often the means of establishing 
many undesirable plants. 

Farm Machinery. 

Threshing machines carry weed seeds from one farm to 
another to such an extent that it should be made compulsory 
for the owners of these machines to clean them after threshing, 
and this before the machine was taken oh the farm where it 
had been employed 

Farm implements, such as ploughs, harrows, and cultivators, 
often greatly assist in the i-pread of those plants that have 
running roots or rhizomes. Take, for example, the Perennial 
Thistle, Cardvus Grvemis, This plant is easily spread if the 
cultural methods carried out for its suppression are not care- 
fully done. Ploughing operations break up the underground 

54 Davrv, Introduction and $p&fpd of Noxious Weeds, [vtf"xxxix 

rhizomes of this plant into small pieces, most of which arc 
capable of forming themselves into new plants. The harrows 
or cultivators still further spread these small sections of roots. 
so that from a small patch of thus thistle whole paddocks may 
become smothered by this moat troublesome weed. 

The same trouble occurs with Bindweed, Convolvulus 
arvensis, which is often such a source of trouble to many 
urchardists. The same can also he said of Hoary Cress, 
Lepiiium draha, that pest of the Wimmera farmer. 


Underground stems, commonly known as root-stocks or 
rhizomes, enable a plant to travel long distances beneath the 
snrface of the ground, Johnson Grass, Sorghum hahp&it&v, 
sends out roots many feet in length that enable it to rapidly 
spread itself away from the parent plant 

Throwing Seeds, 

Many plants, such as the common Tare, Vtcia saliva, and 
Furze, Vkx mrapaus, throw their seeds for considerable 
distances. The pods of these plants dry in such a way as to 
produce a strong tension, which causes them to split apart 
violently, scattering the seeds in all directions, especially during 
the heat of the. day. 

Sheds Distributed by Animals. 

Large seeds, such as nuts and acorns, are carried away 
from where they have fallen by rodents (chiefly squiuels, 
rats, and mice) for food purposes, some of which may 
become overlooked. This often enables these trees to be- 
come widely spread. Animals, and especially squirrels, are 
of benefit to the trees by carrying the nuts and acorns often to 
long distances, where usually a number of the seeds are buried 
by them for later requirements. Possibly this seed-burying 
habit is payment in return for nuts consumed by these animals. 

Some specie* of ants collect seeds over vvide areas and convey 
.them to their nests. This trait must also assist in seed*- 
difcpersal. - 

"The Austral Avian Record." — The March issue of this 
journal {vol. iv., No. 7) is to hand. As usual, there are a 
number of additions and corrections to be made to Mr. 
Gregory Mathews's Check-list of 1920. A notable alteration 
is the name of the Naretha Parrot, Pscphotns narc-thcs t H. L. 
White, figured in The Emu of October last from specimens 
obtained near Naretha (East -West Railway), Western Aus- 
tralia. This becomes Norllriella htsmalogasl&r narelha;. Notes 
on some forgotten bird books make up the remainder of the 

Che Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No, 5. SEPTEMBER 7> 1922. No. 465 


The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal Society's- 
Hall on Monday Evening, Sth August, 1922. 

The president, Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., occupied the 
chair, and about sixty members and visitors were piesenL 

The president said that since the last meeting one of the 
oldest members of the Club, Mr. F. P. Spry, had passed away 
after a short but severe illness. Mr. Spry was a member thc 
Club could ill afford to lose, for, though he had not contributed 
any paper to the meetings, he was a keen observer both in 
entomology and geology, and was always- willing to give any 
information in his power to inquiriug naturalists regarding 
any specimens submitted to him, He moved that a letter of 
sympathy be forwarded to his widow and family. The motion 
was seconded by Mr, J, A. Kershaw, F.E.S., and supported by 
Messrs. F. G. A. Barnard and D. Best, and carried in silence, 
a|? standing 


From the Secretary of the Australasian Association for die 
Advancement of Science, Sydney, stating that the next session 
of the Association would be held at Wellington, &&■ in January. 
1923, and asking the Club to appoint delegates on the general 
council. The appointment of delegates -was referred to the 


Mr. C. Daley. F.L.S., reported that the visit to the Biology 
School, University, 011 Saturday afternoon, 15th July, had 
been well attended, over thirty members availing themselves 
til the opportunity of seeing the zoological department of the 
school. Professor Agar, M.A., gave a short lecture on Mendel's 
law of heredity, using specimen* and diagrams to illustrate 
his remarks, which were confined principal!}' to the results of 
cross-breeding in rabbits. Many interesting exhibits had been 
laid out on the benches for inspection, while the assistant 
demonstrator, Miss J. Raff, M.Sc, had given an interesting 
exhibition of section-cutting, staining, and mounting prep- 
arations for microscopic examination. Through a camera 
lucida members had been invited to try sketching the mouth- 
parts of a fly. Altogether, a most interesting and instructive 
afternoon had been spent, 

A report of the excursion to Sherbrooke, Daudenong Ranges, 
on Saturday, 5th August, was given by the leader, Mr, C Oke, 

gfi Field Naturalist CMj — Prvwdings: [vol'xxxix 

who said that, owing to the short notice, the. patty was rather 
small. The excursion had been arranged in order that the 
Lyre-birds might be seen in the nesting season, but owing to 
the dampness of the gullies it was found impossible to remain 
perfectly quiet amongst the scrub, consequently little was. seen 
of the birds. 


Mr, H- B, Williamson, F.L.S., said that he had heard that 
it is proposed to introduce stoats and weasels into the State 
!or the purpose of destroying rabbits. This, he thought, would 
be a serious mistake, and said that if this w/as likely to be 
done a protest should be entered by the Club. 

Mr. J. A. Kershaw said that it was not likely that any such 
action would be allowed. 

Mr. F. Pitcher said that the committer had suggested that 
one-half of the net proceeds of the forthcoming exhibition of 
wild-flowers be handed over to the Children's Hospital. He 
moved accordingly, and, being seconded by Mr. H. B. William- 
son, it was earned unanimously. 


By Sir. J W. Audas. F.L.S., entitled "A Circuit u/ the 


The author described the notable plants met with during 
a drive of about 1S0 miles made in December last in company 
with Mr. C. W D'Alton. During the drive trie group of ranges 
known as the Grampians was completely encircled as close to 
the- foot-hills as possible. Several new records of plants for 
the south-western division were made, and a most enjoyable 
trip resulted. 


Mr P, C. Morrison called attention to a series of ex- 
hibits in illustration of his paper read at the previous 
meeting, when he was, unfortunately, absent. These in- 
cluded living Serpula ; Nereis, with jaws and phary7jx ex- 
tended and retracted,; Aphrodite, '" Sea-mouse, !! resembling a 
mammal- rather than a worm; Polynoe, a polychaite worm, 
protected with dorsal plates like an armadillo ; Sabellid, a tube- 
building worm with very prominent plumose gills ; Serpula 
tubes, round and ridged forms ; examples of cammensabsm, or 
" table-sharing ,: — (a) periwinkle completely encrusted by 
Serpula, (b) Spirorbis (fam Scrpulidae) on eye-stalk of crayfish. 
Some of these were exhibited through the kindness of Professor 
Agar, of the zoological department, University. 

Mr. A. L. Scott drew attention to some geological specimens, 

^p^*] Field. Naturalists* Club — Proceedings: 57 

being cjecta from Fryingpan Flat, in the neighbourhood of th* 
eruptive area of ftotorua and Tarawera, New Zealand. These 
were mostly mud, dried and hardened, though in some there. 
are fragments of rock somewhat decomposed, The locality 
gets its name from the fact that it is always sizzling. The flat 
covers an area of about 40 acres in the bottom of a rift which 
opened in t886, at the time of the Tarawera eruption. It had 
for its neighbour the famous Waimangu geyser, which was born 
in 1900 and was apparently extinct in 1904. On 1st April. 
11JI7, early in the morning, Fryingpan Flat blew up with a great 
noise, and remained in eruption for some hours. The ridge 
forming the lip of the rift at that point is covered with what 
looks like light-coloured shingle, together with occasional pieces 
of rock. Th^ shingle proves to be hardened mud, and the 
guide stated that the ejecta completely covered the neighbour- 
hood from which the specimens were collected, 


By Mr. J. E. Dixon. — Unique aboriginal flint knife from 
Portland, Victoria ; aboriginal bone needles from kitchen midden 
at. Altona Bay, Vic; and stone tomahawk found in the Alexandra- 
avenue extension, South Yarra. 

By Mr. P. C. Morrison. — Serpula and specimens in illustration 
of paper. 

By Mr. C. Okc. — A small wingless fly (Diptera), under micrn* 

By Geological Survey of Victoria (per Mr. A. E. Rodda).- — 
Four specimens of serpentine from Mount Wellington t Gir in- 
land, and Waratah Bay. 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda. — Six photographs of nests and eggs of 
following birds taker* in Walhalla district, viz., : — Blue Wren, 
Coachwhip-bird, Mountain Thrush, White-eye, Rufous Whistler, 
and Striated Tit-Warbler. 

By Mr. A. L. Scott.— Ejocta from near Rotoma, N.Z., mostly 
dried mud, in illustration of note. 

By Mr. L. Thorn. — Larvae, pups, and 'imagines of the laige 
Victoria Moth, Chdeplcryx colle$%. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated* 

We desire to congratulate our fellow-member, Mr. A. E. 
Kitson, O.B.E., F.G.S., on the recent honour of C.M.G. be- 
stowed upon him by the King, in recognition of his services to 
the Empire as Director of the Geological Survey of Nigeria, 
West Africa. Mr. Kitson served for many years on the Geo- 
logical Survey of Victoria before taking up work in Africa. 

5&. Excursion to Mount Evelyn. Lvd!*xxxVx. 


Despjte thi: rain that had fallen overnight, and the duLI, cloudy 
inntmng, a P ait y pf oveT "thirty members and friends assembled 
It Mount Evelyn on Monday, gth June (King's Birthday), for 
this excursion. Unfortunately, through illness, my co-leader, 
Mr. C L. Barrett, C.M.Z.S., was unable to attend and, as a 
consequence, very little observation of the bird-life was done. 
We decided to take the track along the old Lilydale water-race 
.to the Cascades, on the Olinda Creek. We were told it was 
only two miles to the Cascades, but everyone in the party 
agreed that the distance was greatly underestimated. The 
track is very narrow, and is being gradually overgrown by the 
vegetation on either svide, and, as everything was very wer, 
those \r\ Front soon had wet legs. While those in the rear did 
not have this trouble to contend with, they found the track 
much more slippery, in consequence of the many feet passing 
along it. The crimson form of the. Native Heath. Epacris 
impress^, was out to perfection most of the way along this 
track, but, on account of the moistme — in fact, it amounted 
lo water — dinging to the vegetation, very little was picked. 
Also, due to the same cause, very little collecting or observation 
could be cat lied out. However, on turning over a log I was 
rewarded with a specimen of one of our wcevil-likc longicorns, 
Athemisies a'tMopait, Pasc. and several Adeliurtis. Hanging 
to the bushes were numerous " houses M of our common leaf- 
mlting spider, AYachnuta wagncri, but 1 did not notice one 
with its web spread; they were simply suspended by their 
guy ropes. On, the side of the race, near a culvert, in a dark 
spot, several beautiful webs of an Argiopid spider, Araneus 
bradle^H, were seen and admired. looking very beautiful with 
their iridescent beads of moisture shining in the pale sunlight. 
Flowers, other than the red heath, were very scarce, though 
a few spikes o( the white heath were occasionally seen. The 
common green " Native Fuchsia/ 1 Correct speciosa, was 
occasionally seen, and at least one nice piece of the Star-shaped 
Fuchsia was obtained. Grcnlka t/lpina was just showing a 
few flowers.- There were several rather awkward places to 
negotiate, and in crossing one steep-banked creek some amuse- 
ment: was caused by the slippcriness of rhe mud on the banks. 
At last we reached the. Cascades, and decided to have lunch. 
While wc waited for the " billy" to boil the more energelic 
members of the party decided to hunt around for interesting 
specimens. Here, as along some parts of the track already 
traversed, numerous species of fungi were in he found. Some 
of these were bright red, others were of a beautiful -shade of 
blue ; but yellows and browns predominated. In some Vtn\n 7 

Excursion to Mount Evelyn. 59 

leuca growing over the creek several 'nesting-places of the 
Ring-tailed Possum were observed. They were all old nests, 
it being too early for this season's nests. In an ants* nest three 
specimens of Eupines (sp. ?) were secured, and under a stick 
a male of Tyromorphos speciosus, King, was taken. This is 
the largest Pselaphid beetle found near Melbourne ; it is 8 mm. 
long. Under a piece of rotting bark, on the ground, I took 
what is almost certainly a new species of Staphylinidse, and 
about the smallest r- corded from Australia; it is under the 
half millimetre, or approximately one-sixtieth of an inch. Hours 
might have been profitably spent here by any entomologist, 
but the party seemed to think we had had enough, so, as soon 
as lunch was over, we started off again, going further up the 
creek, then on to a track that led to the Wandin road, and 
then followed that road back to the station. On the way out 
the leader was kindly allowed to lead — that is to say. he was 
always somewhere near the front ; but, once we got near the 
road, the majority apparently decided the leader was an 
unnecessary appendage, and dispensed with his services 
entirely, and rushed off along the road to the station, arriving 
there about three hours and a half before the train was <]vn' 
to leave. They then decided to walk on to 1-ilydale, and thus 
passed out of my ken. While this party was thus rushing off 
to Lilydale, the leader was bringing up the rear with a party 
that had dwindled down to four, who made a determined effort 
to bring home something worth while to show for the day's 
outing. Cutting tussocks of grass and sifting over paper 
proved very instructive and entertaining. Numbers of small 
spiders, representing many families, were obtained, also some- 
large Wolf Spiders, Lycosida?. Most people seem terrified at 
spiders— I know not why ; and the way one lady member of 
the party put her hand on. the ground in front of these large 
wolf spiders, and allowed them to run over her hand, would 
have given most people the "creeps" for days after. After 
searching diligently through this grass, several beetles were 
obtained, the best being an undescribed species of Narcodes. 
Under a stick a fairly rare Staphylinid, (luiichirus gcniculatus, 
Lea, was obtained, while we obtained a specimen of Chlamy- 
dopsis setipennis, Oke (MS.), in an ants' nest. Two surprises 
in flowers were a small spray of Tctraihcca ciliaia and two 
small bushes of Lepiospermum scoparimn, out in flower. Were 
they late or early ? Mr. A. I). Hardy had kindly invited 
members to his country residence, adjacent to the station, to 
have tea, and a few availed themselves of his offer, returning 
to town by the last train, well satisfied with the pleasant day 
spent, — Chas. Okl. 


The tale My. Frank P. Spry 

r Vict. Nat. 

Victorian entomologists will deeply regret the death at South 
Melbourne, on 8th August, of Mr. Frank Palmer Spry, ento- 
mologist at the National Museum, Melbourne. He was one of 
the early members of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, 
having been elected in February, 1882. He was a regular 
attendant at the meetings of the Club, where he will be greatly 
missed, and generally had some interesting exhibit, but un- 


fortunately could never be induced to commit any of his 
extensive knowledge to paper. 

Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., zoologist, National Museum, 
Melbourne, pays the following tribute to Mr. Spry for his 
entomological work ;— 

" Mr. Spry was one of the most enthusiastic of our en- 
tomological members, and retained a very keen interest in 
his favourite subject up to the time of his death. Born 
at St. Kilda on 18th June, 1858, he developed at an early 
age an interest in entomology, devoting his attention to Vic- 
torian butterflies. Prior to the formation of the Club he was 
in close association with the late W. and D. Kershaw, of the 
National Museum, and Messrs. I). Best, C. French, sen., and 
others who later took a prominent part in the formation of the 
Club, and with them collected in Studley Park, Brighton Beach, 
and other localities, at that time favourite collecting-grounds. 

*5JJj»] The lata My. Frank P, Spty. 6\ 

'In 1S93, in conjunction with Mr, Emcst Anderson, lie 
published the - Victorian Butterflies/ a most useful publication, 
which has long since run out of print. 

" la 1904 he joined the staff, of the National Museum "as 
museum assistant, and in 1920, m view of his excellent work in 
connection with entomology, was promoted to the position of 
entomologist, It was in entomology that he did his best work, 
and throughout his eighteen years 5 association with the Museum 
took the keenest pride in the preservation and arrangement of 
the collections, which deservedly earned for him the praise of 
entomologists both in Australia and abroad. 

11 His knowledge of Australian Coleoptera. Diptera, and 
Hymenoptera was probably unsurpassed, in the study of -which 
he devoted all his spare time. Every week-end and all his 
holidays were devoted to field work, the bulk of his gatherings 
being added to the Museum collections. 

11 His name is frequently mentioned in the publications of 
Dr. £. W. Ferguson; H. J. Carter, A. M. Lea, Dr. K. J. Tillyard, 
and others in acknowledgment of advice und assistance 
Although always ready to help others, and especially beginners, 
he could not be pcisuaded to put his 'knowledge into print. 
Much valuable informal-ion which he accumulated, and which 
took considerable time and effort to obtain, has thus to a large 
extent been lost. 

" Apart from entomology. Mr. Spry was a Well-known student 
and collector of coins, prints, &c, relating to the early history 
of Australia, and for some time w;is a member of the Historical 
q Society of Victoria. 

" His (oss will be keenly lelt airtOng the large circle of friends 
and co-workers with whom he was so long and closely associated, 
but by none so much as his colleagues at the Museiwi." 

Mr. F. Chapman. A.L.S.,, paleontologist, National Museum. 
Melbourne, writing in appreciation of Mr. Spry's. geological 
investigations, says : — 

" f well, remembei attending: the first meeting, after my 
arrival in Melbourne, of the Field Naturalists' Club, and being 
introduced to Mr. Spry by the late Dr. T. S. Hall. He remarked, 
* Here is a man you must know, for he discovered Bather's new 
crinoid.' The fossil cxinoid referred to, which Mr. Spry had 
found near the old pumping station outside the Botanical 
Gardens, was only one of many hundreds of wonderful dis- 
coveries he made in working ovet the mudstonc of the Yarra 
improvements. For instance, nearly all the graptolites found 
there were revealed by his hammer, and these, with many 
distinct types ol Orthoceras now in the National Museum, would 
certainly have been lost to science but for his timely collecting. 

"Like the author of * The Old Red Sandstone/' Mr. Spry 1 * 

6«i The. late My. Fvmk P Spry- [v«h xxxix , 

earlier occupation as a stonemason led him to take particular 
notice of the fossils in the stones upon which he worked: and 
later, as contractors foreman in the sewerage works round 
Melbourne, he had ample opportunity, of which he availed 
himself to the full, of collecting the vaiious fossils found both 
in the bedrock and in the Pleistocene. In the latter formation 
he came across some interesting clay nodules containing plant 
remains, that had been formed in the bywash of the old Yarra 
at South Melbourne more than ten thousand years ago. These 
I described in the Geological Maga.unc for 1906, and the type 
example is exhibited in the National Museum, Of the more 
notable finds of Mr. Spry in the Mctbournian niudstone w'e 
may particularly mention the wonderful brittle-star, Gr&gonuin 
aptyt, lying, in all its perfection, with slender, flexuous, and 
spiny arms, on the fine, hardened mud of the South XaJX£j 
Silurian.* These specimens, type and counterpart, now repose 
iu the collection of the National Museum. Just prior to 1902 
Mi. Spry bad found several curious fossil impmssions like the 
helical uncoiling of a fern tip, and which were then provision- 
ally placed with the convenient gi'oup of the ' fucoids,' After 
seventeen years slightly better examples of these forms were 
found at Keilor by Mr. A- James, B A., and »t gave one much 
satisfaction to find them to be an almost unique occurrence of 
the gill impressions of Siluiian worms (Tracbydcrma), closely 
related to the living Sabella and Serpula. 

" Although his later years weic well occupied with entomo. 
logical studies, Mr. Spry found time to take several geological 
trips, m which it was sometimes my puvilcgc to join ; and the 
keen eye and skilful band that he showed in this work was worth 
-witnessing. In his reading he spread himself so widely that 
it was astonishing to find he was conversant not only with 
general geological works, but more especially with those bearing 
on entomology in regard to travels and distribution. Fabrc's 
works he revelled in, though not always agreeing with Fable's 
conclusions. . Mr. Spry was especially fond of histoiical 
literature, and at times one would find him reading such works 
in the original French. Of a philosophic bent, we would show 
by his reasoning a deep insight into the wonderful economy 
of the insect world, and it is to be jegiettad that lie did not 
place his knowledge on record. His monument is m the memory 
of his colleagues and in the practical achievements he has kii 

His remains were interred in the Melbourne General Cemetery 
on Wednesday, nth August, in the presence of quite a number 
of his fcllow-mcmbers who desired to show their respect for 
their old friend. 
♦ Illustrated in '* Aufth'ulasUm Fos&Ilb," Cbupmau, p. iaj. — Ed. Y&h A*W 

^VJ Horne, Aboriginal Implements. 63 


Abstract of a Paper read by Dr. Geo. Horne, V.D. 

(Read before the Field Naturalists* Club of Victoria , \oth Aprils 1922.) 

There are in Australasia four areas, at any rate, which have 
marked differences, as well as marked resemblances, in their 
stone implements — 

1. The first is the East Coast, extending from beyond 
Brisbane to Cape Otway in Victoria. This was inhabited by 
natives who traced their descent through their fathers. 

2. The second is the eastern inland district, which stretches 
from the coastal range to about the Queensland border and 
Lakes Eyre and Torrens. These trace their descent through 
their mothers. (I am dealing particularly with those near 
Lake Eyre.) 

3. The third extends west and north from Lake Eyre. The 
natives of this district are paternal in tracing their descent. 

4. The fourth area is Tasmania. 

Taking first the stones that arc universally present, we have 
the hand scrapers. These have an oval chipped end, and a 
handle which is twice as long as its breadth, or even more, 
but sometimes it is only a little longer than it is broad. They 
have this peculiarity : there is a flat side and a keeled side. 
This keeled side has in many cases a piece of the keel chipped 
off, to make a place on which to put the finger. For these 
stones I have adopted the name- of " kalara " by which the 
natives east of Lake Eyre call them. The kalara as found in 
Tasmania is absolutely undistinguishable from the Lake Eyre 
variety, as are also the East coast specimens. It is world-wide 
in its distribution, being found in England and France, as well 
as America, South Africa, and Japan. 

Turning, then, to the scrapers which are used in one district 
and not in all, one finds the "thumb-nail" (fig. i), which is 

Fig. 1, 

a small, very well chipped example of the kalara. These are 
found in great profusion near Melbourne, but there are none 


Horne, Aboriginal Implements. 

r Vict. Nat., 

amongst the maternal aboriginals of Lake Eyre. To the west 
of Lake Eyre, amongst the paternal natives, they appear again. 
Another example may be found in the long, flaked knife. 
Amongst the central maternal folk this is made of a chert 
which chips with a sharp edge. The specially coveted one is 
as long as possible, and is slightly hooked at the end. They 
are covered at the blunt end with mindrie gum. The smaller 
knives are, however, marked for gripping, and are used in 
boys' fights or for general service. The East Coast had many 
similar knives (fig. 2), but they were throughout of a lighter 

Fig. 2. 
character ; sometimes they have a chipped edge, which may 
be serrated. 

The Tasmanian knife is a long blade, almost always with a 
chipped edge, though a few flake knives are found. 

The chipped-back knives of Etheridgc are a peculiar 
East Coast trait. They are found in two shapes, and have 
several minor differences. These are shown in fig. 3 and 
fig. 4. The former are found all along the coast ; the latter 

Fig. 3. Fig. 4. 

abound in Victoria, and some few are found to the west of 
Lake Eyre, where the Arunda men know them well. To the 
east of Lake Eyre they may be found, but the present in- 
habitants do not know them. It is significant that the East 
Coast and also the Arunda are paternal natives. Only the 
double-pointed ones (fig. 5) arc found among these folk. None 

1991 J 

Horne, Aboriginal Implement*. 

Fig. 5- 

of them are found in Tasmania. All the small chipped-back 
knives and thumb-nail scrapers are classed by Breuil as 

Another form of knife, the leaf-shaped flake, is one that 
is specially used for the circumcision operation in the Lake 
Eyre district. It may also be used for general surgical pur- 
poses, such as making tribal marks, &c. A similar knife 
{fig. 6) was in use among the East Coast natives, and on both 

Fig. 6. 
the mark for the finger or thumb was made. The East Coast 
natives differ from the others in the vast numbers of minute 
copies of larger implements to be found there. These seem to 
have been made for the children to practise with. Children 
are carefully considered amongst the Lake Eyre tribes, small 
implements being specially made for them. 

When one takes into consideration the polished axes and 
knives, the rough workmanship of most of the implements, 
and the carefully made Tardenoisian forms, one cannot help 
thinking that in France these would be called Campigian, or 
■certainly pre-Neolithic in age. 

Flora of South Australia. — The South Australian Branch 
of the British Science Guild, in pursuance of its policy to issue 
handbooks on the flora and fauna of the State, has issued the 
first part of the " Flora of South Australia." This has been 
-written by Mr. J. M. Black, author of that excellent work on 
*' The Naturalized Flora of South Australia." He has done his 
work well, but we fear it is far too scientific to become a 
popular handbook such as we presume was the idea of the 
Guild. Of course, it is difficult to determine what should be 
included and what should be left out in such a work, and 

66 ^Us: [vo^^x'ix. 

perhaps it is better to err on the side of including too much 
detail. The part under notice, being arranged on the system of 
Engler, commences with the ferns and extends to and includes 
the orchids, barely perhaps one-fourth of the plants of the 
State. The orchids have been dealt with by Dr. R. S. Rogers, 
the well-known authority on that group, and are treated very 
minutely, with some excellent drawings by Miss R. C. Fiveash. 
Following recent botanical publications of a country the intro- 
duced plants are included in their systematic positions. The 
author's introduction explains the scope of the work and other 
points. Then an excellent sketch of the workers on South 
Australian plants and previous publications is followed by a 
very complete glossary of botanic terms. As the dimensions of 
the plants dealt with are given in terms of centimetres, a very 
handy measurement scale is included, which should prove of 
great service. Altogether the publication, which has been 
produced by the Government printer, is a valuable addition to 
the State floras of Australasia. Its price is three shillings, and 
Victorian botanists will find it a useful investment, for many 
of the plants described are found also in this State. 

11 Journal of the Royal Society of Western Aus- 
tralia/' — The volume of this publication (vol. vii., 1920-21)' 
recently issued contains several interesting and important 
papers, notably two by Mr. D. A. Herbert, M.Sc, Economic 
Botanist and Plant Pathologist, Analytical Department, 
Western Australia, on parasitism of the Quandong and on 
parasitism of the Sandalwood. The Quandong, Fusanits 
acuminatum, R. Br. , was found to be parasitic on A cacia 
acuminata, Eucalyptus laxophleba, and Daviesia euphorbioides.. 
The Sandalwood, which is a valuable tree commercially, was 
also found to have Acacia acuminata, the Raspberry-jam Acacia, 
as its favourite host. Efforts to raise young Sandalwoods 
seemed to prove that a host plant is essential to it. 

" Half-Hoi t rs in* the Bush-House." — Many field 
naturalists who do a little in the way of pot-culture of plants 
they find, or of others they are interested in, will find in Mr. 
A. E. Cole's little volume a great deal that will both interest 
and instruct them. It is clearly written, in simple language, 
with many figures in illustration of the author's remarks and 
ideas. All types of plants are dealt with in his notes, such as 
bulbs, ferns, palms, foliage plants, creepers, orchids, ornamental 
grasses, and shrubs, so, whatever may be the favourite group, 
the reader is sure to find something applicable to his fancy. 
The author has been good enough to insert the derivations of 
most of the names of genera used, which helps considerably in 
remembering the proper names of the various plants. The 
work is published by Messrs. Angus and Robertson, at the price 
of five shillings. 

CIk Victorian naturalist. 

Vol.* XXXTX.— No. 6, OCTOBER 5, 1922, No. 466, 


The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, nth September, 1922. 

The president, Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., occupied the 
chair, and about fifty members and visitors we're present. 


A report of the excursion to Warrandyte on Saturday, 19th 
August, was, in the absence of the leader, Dr. C. S. Sutton, 
given by Mr F G. A. Barnard, who said that a party of about 
loity members and friends had proceeded to Warrandyte by 
char-a-banc and had had an enjoyable afternoon, though soot* 
after starting a severe hailstorm had been encountered. On 
arrival at the "Pound Bead" members alighted from the 
vehicles and walked along to the river-bank in order to see the 
Silver Wattles, Acacia dedbata, in bloom. These were found 
to be at their best, and occasional beams of sunshine lighting 
them up made the sight very beautiful. A few other flowers 
were collected, and after afternoon tea the party returned to 

A report of the excursion to Bayswater on Saturday, 2nd 
September, was given by the leader., Mr. F. E. Pescott, F.L.S.. 
who said that quite a large party assembled at the "Basin" 
in order to view the nursery of Mr. Berf. Chandler, where a 
number of native shrubs are being culitvated in quantity for 
the cut-flower trade. One of the greatest favourites with the 
public is the Western Australian Boronia, B. megasiigma, which, 
uader treatment here, grows to greater perfection than in its 
native state, while the flowering period has been so extended 
that flowers are obtainable during nearly six months of the 
year. Other favourites grown are Tftryfitomcnc Mitchelliana, 
'Lhotzhya gcnetyUoides, and Boroina pinnata t while others arc 
btiny tried. Several acacias were in full bloom, and added tu 
the colour scheme ol the nursery. Mr. Chandler kindly allowed 
the visitors to help themselves to his flowers, w r hich privilege 
was much appreciated, 

A report of the excursion to Send j go on Saturday, 9th 
September, was given by one of the leaders, Mr. C. Daley. 
F-L.S., who said that the Melbourne contingent of the party 
numbered five, hut Jitfl local uo -leader, Mr. D. J. Patnft, brought 
three more with him, so that nine altogether participated in 
the outing. The first direction taken was towards Ironstorv 
Hill, to the north of Bcndtgo, where it was found that the 

6S Field Naturtdnb 1 Club—PmteMngs. [v^'.xxxix. 

country was suffering from a dry winter, consequently flowers 
were scarce, but seveial acacias, such as A. pyc?ian/Jut t A* 
valamifolia, and A. lefrasa, made a fine show. The following 
day the party went in the opposite direction, to South Man- 
durang, where they found an abundance of flowers, Eriostejnons* 
Grevilleas, and Acacias being very conspicuous. Orchids, 
though numerous, weie confined to a few species, The 
entomologists were very pleased with the result of their efforts, 
several very interesting species and larvae being taken 


On a* ballot being taken. Mrs. E. Coleman, " Wolsham " 
Blackburn-road, Blackburn; Miss E. Hewitt, ff StraUiroy." 
BarkerYtoad, Hawthorn • Mr. A. Brown. B.A., LL.B., S7 
WaUletrec-road, Malvcru ; and Mr. C. WilRuttftn, Grove-road, 
Hawthorn, were duly elected as ordinary members, and Master 
H. Wentworth. Welbngton-street, Kew, as an associate member 
of the Club. 


Mr A. EL Keep referred to the alarming increase in the 
export of live Australian birds to foreign countries, and the 
great losses by death resulting from the practice. Some dis- 
cussion ensued, which was unanimously in favour of some 
steps being taken to regulate or abolish the export oF live 
specimens 01 the Australian fauna, and the matter was left in 
the hands of the committee to confer with other bodies, and 
make representations 'to the Government on the matter. 


i. By Mrs E. Coleman, entitled " Some Autumn Orchids/* 

The author, in a chatty paper, dealt with the various species 
Of terrestrial orchids found during the autumn months. The 
first to claim attention was the sweetly-scented Eriochilus 
aiduhwalis, which often occurs in great quantities in April and 
May In March may be found representatives of the genus 
Prasopbyllurn, mainly the smaller forms. Some of the 
'Greenhoods tJ (Pterostylis) commence their flowering period 
in the autumn. Another autumn orchid, Chilogloltis dypkylta. 
Mowers during May. Altogether, the paper proved most inter- 
esting, and considerably enlarged members' ideas as to the 
variety of orchids to be found during April and May. 

Some little discussion ensued, in which Mrs. Coleman was 
Congratulated on her paper. 

2. By Mr. C. Oke, entitled "An Entomologist in the Dan- 
denongs in Winter." 

Owing to the lateness of tlw hour only a portion of this Jiaper 
was read, but the author gave sufficient of ]iis notes to prove 

^ ] Field Namyulish' Club— Proceedings-- 69 

that winter is not such a blank for insects as is usually supposed. 
and that in a district like the Dandenong Ranges, by careful 
seaich, species of nearly every order may be found, 


By Mr F. G. A. Barnard. — Pot-grown orchid, Pkroslylh 
nutans, in bloom. 

By Mr. F. Cudmorc. — Aboriginal spear-head .from Oodna- 
datta, Lake Eyre district, South Australia. 

By Mr. C. Daley, B. A. — Flowers of Eriosk-mon obovaUs, 
CrYcvillaa aqnifolia , and Tctratheca ciliala, collected at Bendign 
excursion 5 also flowers of Thryptomcnc Mitchclliana and 
Bavckca plicata, grown at Caulfield 

By Mr. J. E. Dixon. — Cabinet drawer of Victorian Paropsis 
beetles (Ladybirds), comprising 76 species. 

By Mr. E. R. Harnmet, — Aboriginal chisel from Upper Goul- 
bum, Victoria; sulphur from Tikitcrc, Rotorua, N.Z. ; and 
stone axe from Fiji. 

By Mr. E. E. Pescott, F.L.S* — Orchid. CahuUnia finmila, 
Rogers, new to science, collected at Bannockburn, Victoria, by 
Miss B. Pittard, September, 1916 ; flowers of Acacia elongata 
and A. HowiUii, species suitable for hedge purposes \ flowers of 
Thryptomcnc Mitchclliana, gathered six weeks previously ; also 
an aboriginal stone implement used as an axe, a rubbing and 
chipping stone, and also a hammer. 

By Geological Survey of Victoria (per Mr. A. E. Rodda).— 
Pscudomorphic crystals of Kmonite after pyntc, from Dunolly. 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda.— Photographs of nests and eggs of fol- 
lowing birds — vifc,> Flame -breasted Robin, Brown Tit-Warbler, 
White-shafted Fantail, White-browed Scrub- Wren, Crescent 
Honey-eater, and Pilot-bird, from Walh^lla district, 

By Mr. A. L. Scott. — Rock specimens from Tarawera, New 

By Mr. H B Williamson, F.L.S. — Orchids. Lypcranlhufj 
nigricans, Red -beak Orchid, and fnladcma ('fcrflca, Blu^ 
Caladenia, from Cheltenham. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated, 

Correction. — In the September Naturalist, page Go, line i^j 
from bottom, Mr J. A. Kershaw. F.E.S., was referred to as 
" xoologist " of the National Museum; his official position is 

Peksoxal.— Mr. C French, jun., Government Entomologist, 
has been appointed lecturer on agricultural entomology in the 
course for the degree of Bachelor of Agriculture in the University 
of Melbourne. 

;o Morrison, Study of out Common Serpulut, [vJi'x'xxix. 


By P. C. Morrison. 

' K R#ad be/ore tht Field Naturalists' Cfub of Viclvna t wth July rojz.) 

lv order that students of the natural history of any object, 
whether it be animal or vegetable, may be able to base their 
remarks on some recognizable foundation, such objects have 
been classified by investigators into groups — at first very 
comprehensive — based on general structural features. These 
are gradually narrowed down by the separation of the objects 
under consideration into smaller groups possessing distinctive 
features, and so on till we reach a group containing few differing 
features, which, (or convenience, is termed a genus. 

Now, the animal ahout which I propose to give some notes 
to-night belongs to the family Serpuiidre This is an important 
group of the sub-kingdom or phylum known as the Annelida 
—the segmented worms— which includes nearly all worms 
except parasitic ones. The members of this phylum are 
characterized externally by the division of the body into rings 
or segments, as in the common earthworm. This characteiistic 
alone would not be a sufficiently important one upon which to 
form a phylum were it not for the fact that the rings aie only 
an outward indication of a very important and typical internal 
structure In all the worms belonging to this phylum we nnd 
the body divided into a number of chambers or somites by 
transverse walk or septa, corresponding to one or more of the 
external rings, each somite being a repetition of the last, 
bearing a more or less complete set of organs, 

Phylum: Annelida. 
Class t — Hircdikea : Leeches 

Class 2.— Ckxtopoda : Worms provided with bristles foi 

Order x. — Oligochseta. — Bristles few in number Earthworms. 

Order 2 — Polychaeta. — Bristles numerous : Manne worms. 

The Polychaeta include seven sub-orders, which are collected 
under two branches — 

Branch r — Phanerocephala : free-living or burrowing f"»rms 

(contains rive sub-urders). 
Branch 2. — Cryptoccphata ; tubc-buiiding forms. 

Sub-order I — Hermelliforrnia — a small, unimportant 

group containing only two species. 
Sub-order 2 — Sabelliformia—eontaming the remainder 
' of the tube-building polychsetes, 

There are four families of Sabelliformia, of which we need to 
mention only one — Serpulidce, to which the serpula belongs. 
It is worth noting that it is impossible to give the species of 


'!^*1 Mobrcwon, Study of aav Common So'puttU. jt 

any of oui Victorian serpulie, as ua work lias- yet been <1ot\*-. 
upon them, the genus, Scrpula, being the furthest we can go 
up to the present in classifying them. This is just one of 
many lines of investigation open to workers in a Club such 
as »>ut own who rate to delve deeper than ordinary superficial 
interest in natural history. 

Now that we hnve got over the least interesting, although 
by no means the least important, part of our subject, and have. 
seen just what place the object of our studies occupies in the 
general scheme of things, let us go back and briefly examine 
the group of polyclinics as a whole Both free and tube- 
building forms aj« common objects on our seashores-, living for 
the most part between tide-marks in rock pools. 

The commonest of the free-living forms is perhaps Nereis 
the common sand-worm of the angler, to be found among the 
rocks and sand all round the Bay heie. This, in cuinmon with 
many other free-living forms, has horny jaws and teeth which 
can be protruded from (he mouth or withdrawn a considerable 
distance down the " throat 3t at wall These jaws in the 
retracted condition can be well made out m the specimen 

A curious form sometimes found about here is the sea-mouse. 
Aphrodite, in which the bristles are long and fine and cover 
the whole of the back, giving the animal the appearance of a 
small mammal rather than of a worm. 

Another similar form is protected by dorsal plates, giving i( 
much the appearance of a tiny armadillo- Jt belongs to the 
genus Polynoe, and is sometimes found lotmd our shoies. 

The two latter are not so often found by the shore collector, 
as they prefer to live in a moderate h of water, where they 
walk alon^ the sca-bottora in seaich id prey- Only a few of 
the polychfetes arc pelagic and swim ha the open ocean. On*' 
of these is Tomoptcris, which *oologts1s have hod brought 
before them a good c&ftl lately as a favourable object for 
research in certain branches of cytology, mving to the brilliant 
wink of A. and K. E. Schrciner 

The tube-building forms ^ie all more or less profoundly 
modified for their mode of existence. Respiration can, of 
course, be carried on only by exposed parts of the body — i.e., 
the head end — and so, instead of having a row of small gills 
down each side, as do most of the free-living forms, they have 
a tuft of enormously-developed gills at the head, sometimes in 
the form of long unbranched threads, as in Terebella, but 
more often is a pair of large, brightly colomed. much-branched 
structures, each primary branch being pinnate. The 7utta 
condiuon holds in Scrpula, to which IVC will confine our 
remaining remarks. 

fz Morrison, Study of owv Common $nrpu/itf. PvnU^'xxiV 

Perhaps one of the commonest objects round our coast is 
the white incrustation of twisted, worm-like tubes so often 
found covering rocks and piles up to low -water mark, and 
so.metimes between tide marks. tubes are secreted by 
the Serpula, aiui, even it they are uninhabited, they are worth 
examining They are more or less rough outside, but always 
very smooth within for the reception of the body of the 
inhabitant. With a little care specimens may he obtained from 
round our coast, in different parts, showing a regular gradation 
from a perfectly round exterior to a form with five or six 
longitudinal ribs, as can be seen also in an extinct form, S. 
onyev^nsis, found in Victoria. In every case however, hori- 
zontal rings axe well marked, each (like the annual rings in 
the trunk of a tree) denoting a period of growth of the tube. 
If we have the good fortune to find the animal at home, as 
we arc certain to do if the specimen has been uuder water when 
collected, Ave have much more to see. At first it appears that 
each tube is blind at its outer end. for it is blocked up by a 
perfectly* filling white disc; but if the specimen be placed in 
sea water for a few minutes and allowed to remain undisturbed, 
I he disc at the end of each tube will be seen to move outwards, 
allowing two beautiful vane gated plumes to emerge. These 
plumes arc the breathing apparatus ol vhe animal inhabiting 
the tube, and have on them eyes, which, while unable to form 
a definite image, are able to perceive differences of light and 
shade, thus giving the animal warning of the approach of 
danger, The delicate plume-like gills arc also apparently 
endowed with a very delicate sense of touch, for they can detect 
the presence of even very slight currents in the water This 
the writer has proved by producing slight currents by means 
of a fountain-pen filler drawn out to a very fine point. Very 
slight disturbances were found to cause the animal to place 
• tself with its fills across the direction of the current, exposing 
as large fi surface h^ possible to it, probably with a view to 
obUiinmq food, for the gills serve the additional pwposc of food 
capture. If. however, the intensity of the disturbance was 
increased, the animal would retract sharply into its abode, 
the disc, which is really the base of an inverted cone or oper- 
culum of homy material, effectively closing the mouth of the 
tUbft against pussible enemies. This is interesting in view of 
the fact that each animal in the colony is continually producing 
a current wbile the gills are expanded by means of fine hairs 
or cilia coveting (he whole uf the gill branches and pinme, and, 
while the cumulative action of ail the members of a colony 
must produce a very noticeable disturbance, each individual 
seems easily capable of discriminating between this and a 
current produced by some external agency The putpose oi 

1 ^ ; 1 MoRKisoXf 5twly of our Common ScrpuHd. jy 

the current produced by the colony seems to be to waft the 
piey to the tentacles, as the animal if incapable of protruding 
far out of its tube. 

If the tube be carefully chipped away, JeavJng the body of 
the animal exposed, we are able to learn much mum of our 
friend's anatomy. He has a body not unlike that of an ordinary 
thin earthworm, and the bristles on the hinder puii. cannot bo 
seen with the naked eye The front part, however, is typical 
of nothing but the group under consideration, as it is an 
adaptation to a peculiar mode of existence A. shield-like 
expansion, the thorax, covers the front part of the animal, 
and possesses at its free edges tufts of seta; or bristles, which, 
by gripping againsl the Sides of the tube, enable the animal 
to get a purchase, and so advance and retract easily and quickly 
in the tube. 

The thorax is more robust than the hinder part of the body, 
which, under normal conditions, is never exposed outside the 
tube )t is the thorax, too, which secretes the shell, and 
which smooths the inner *u»Taee for the comfort of the tender, 
vulnerable tail portion. The mouth is very inconspicuous, and 
is situated as a small hole between the bases of the gills, which 
act as hps, 

/Vt the tail end the tube is usually closed, and so there must 
be some mechanism provided for the disposal of poisonous 
excretory products, which are discharged from the anus at the 
tail and also from a pair of excretory pores in each of the 
numerous segments of the animal. For the attainment of this 
end a ventral groove runs from the tail to the mouth of the 
tube, and into this the excretory pores open. Along each 
side of this '"gutter" is a row of fine hairs or cilia which con- 
tinually waft a stream of water from tail to head, thus sweeping 
away all harmful products as they are discharged from the 
body, while pure sea-water flows in from the gills and down 
the back to keep the gutter supplied with water. This channel 
also serves to liberate the eggs, which are fertilized after leaving 
the tube by spermatozoa liberated in the same way The action 
of this ciliated gutter can sometimes be beautifully seen in a 
specimen removed from its tube and placed in a watch glass 
containing some sea water into which a little tannine has 
been dropped. Streaks of carmine are quickly formed along 
the lines of the currents, showing them up very distinctly. 
This is a standard method in work with living animals under 
the microscope, as the carmine, although it is in a very fine 
pnwder, is yet insoluble, and so caunot harm the animal ot 
produce abnormal actions. One specimen the writer was 
examining thus in nudo laid a number of eggs while under 
observation » and, although there was no tube present, yet 

74 Morrison, Study of out Common Swpulid* [voi^xxxoc. 

these were carefully wafted along this channel for the full 
length of I he animaL and then cast away from the head end, 
the slow procession of little white spheres along the undulating 
con tow of the animal presenting a really beautiful spectacle. 

The internal anatomy of the animal, except in so far as has 
been already mentioned, depends for its study so much upon 
microscopical technique and trained observation as to be, in 
the opinion of the writer, beyond the scope of an elementary 
study such as the present one, and so any attempt at describing 
it has been omitted. 

I have hitherto spoken of the Serpula as an animal of 
absolute stationary abode ; but this is not. in all cases strictly 
correct, as among these tube -budding worms, and especially 
among the serpulids, as being the commonest o( the type, we 
find many examples of commcnsalism. This is a mode of life 
in which two or more animals, often of widely differing natures, 
live constantly together, usually for mutual benefit, and at 
least neve* to the detriment of either, " sharing the- same 
table/' as the term denotes. One has seen serpulids growing 
on living crayfish and dabs, sea-urchins, and shell-fish of 
various kinds, all of which enable the worm to obtain food 
more easily, as they move fiom place to place, and so take 
their passengers continually to fresh fields and pastures new, 
instead of leaving them wholly dependent upon the whim of 
the ocean currents to bring their food to them ; and, of course, 
the larger animals often drop "crumbs" of their meals, which 
are usually carried to the expectant gill tentacles of the waiting 
serpulid h\ return for these kindly offices of its host the 
Serpula endows upon it the magic cloak of invisibility, for at 
the approach of danger the largei animal has only to remain 
still and it is indistinguishable from the surrounding serpula- 
covcred rocks among which it makes its home. One such 
specimen as this — a periwinkle, completely encrusted with 
Serpulx — ft was the writer's good fortune to obtain at Brighton 
recently, and it was a worth-while entertainment to sit and 
watch the evolutions of the little family in a small glass 
aquarium, the periwinkle ciawling along the glass and rocks 
3ike a snail housed, apparently, in a living mass of brightly- 
coloured waving plumes. Unfortunately, a saltwater aqiranum 
tea. difficult thing to keep in order at any considerable distance 
from the sea, and soon the host and his precious burden, no 
doubt affected by the discharge of poisonous matter into the 
water by all the inhabitants, became lethargic and died. 

Serpufids and their allies have been found as fossils in 
Victoria, S. onyensnsis being found fairly freely in a bore at 
Ouyen at a depth of up to 600 feet, and members of other 
genera have also been described by Mr. F. Chapman, to whom 


Morrison, Study of out Common Strputid. 75 

I am indebted for any information I possess regarding these 
iossil forms. The oldest of these representatives of a bygone 
age a^e. peibapa 60,000,000 years old. 

In conclusion, a few words about general zoological research 
methods for those desirous of taking up such work might not 
be amiss. From the point of view of the systematise the most 
important work to be done on any new animal is a minute and 
exhaustive study of its structure, and a comparison of it with 
that of other related forms. Each part should be minutely 
examined, described, and drawn, no detail being too small to 
merit attention. Iti the polyehaeta, for example, among the 
free4iving forms particularly, there are a number of species 
very similar externally which are identified by the various 
forms of their bristles, which are very constant in any one 
species, but which differ considerably in shape in different 
species otherwise similar. Of course, each species will differ 
from other 3 in more particulars than this one, but this is the 
most trustworthy for purposes of identification. 

In addition to outside appearance, internal structure has 
often to be examined. In the case of most animals rjiis can be 
done by ordinary dissection, but in small forms such 35 these 
worms more can be learned by cutting the whole animal into 
sections and studying these under the microscope. In many 
cases, however, this work, which is rather tedious and exacting, 
may be omitted unless a whole group is being examined and 
classified. The structure being known, the habits of the animal 
and its relation to its environment are the next things to be 
determined, and usually the last thing to be done is to study 
the development from egg to adult. 

And tiow, as a final word, I would commend to all workers 
or intending workers along the held of 20oIogy in this Club 
the remarks of Sir Baldwin Spencer at our recent exhibition 
anent the need for work to be done on om Australian fauna, 
and would emphasiz-e the fact that, at least among our tube- 
building polychstes, we are uncertain in many cases even 
of the genera to which they belong. 

Exhibition of Wild-Flowers. — Members will be pleased 
to learn that the annual exhibition of wild- flowers, held On 
Tuesday, 3rd October, while this number was being prepared 
for issue, was again an unqualified success. The attendance 
of the general public was good, while the variety in the exhibits 
has seldom been exceeded. Full details of the exhibition will 
be given in the next NaturaUst. The committee desires to 
thank members and friends of the Club for their kindly 
co-operation in what has become a " looked-for " fixture in 
the social life of Melbourne, and with this, as in previous 


7« "«**- [v£$fe. 

exhibitions, a way of raising money for a deserving charity. 
it is expected that the Children's Huspital will receive at least 
£50 through the effort. 

"Australian Naxdke Stodfes." — Just as we go to press 
copies of this long-expected work by Dr. J. A. Leach are avail- 
able. The volume, which extends to over 500 pages, should 
be a valuable addition to the libraries of nature study teachers, 
being well illustrated with about 2,000 black and white 
drawings, besides six three-colou* plates A review of the 
work will appear in the next NatiwatisL 

" The Honev Flora of Victoria." — This is a reprint of a 
.series of articles which appeared in the Journal of Agru-Mlktre 
during 1914-18. The author, Mr. F. R. Beuhne, Government 
Apiculturist, says in his- foreword that the matter in the earlier 
articles Has been brought up to date, but there is still much 
information wanted with regard to the apicultural value of 
our native vegetation, and it is partly with that view that the 
articles have been brought together and issued at the popular 
price of one shilling. It is hoped that those inteiested in bee 
culture will study what has been written, and will communicate 
with the author as to revision of extension of the statements. 
The work is illustrated with seventy figures, mostly eucalypts, 
and, in fact, with its excellent indices and lists of species, might 
almost be recommended as a handbook to the commoner 
species of our gum-trees. Notes on the Bauksias, Tea-tice*. 
Callistemons, and Grass-trees complete the wotk, which has 
been issued by the Government Printer. 

Australian Bird Maps. — A bird-book of more than usual 
interest to bird-lovers is M Australian Bird* by Robert 
Hall, C.M.Z S. ( of Hobart, well known some years ago as a 
member of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria. In it, by 
the use of one hundred and one miniature maps or graphs repre- 
senting Australia and the adjacent islands/ &c, the author 
illustrates the distribution and seasonal movements of many 
oi our notable birds, tells their mode of life, &c. The maps 
might have been on a rather larger scale without increasing the 
size of the pages, thus allowing the details to be. clearer, while, 
had they been placed in close proximity to the reading matter 
referring to them, much turning over of pages would have 
been avoided. However, the volume, which has been published 
for the benefit of the boy and girl scouts of Tasmania, will be 
welcomed by students of bird-life ; it reveals a deal of research 
and note-taking on the part of the author. Three plates of 
figures of hi ids illustrate the species referred to in the various 
maps. The work lias been published at four shillings and 
sixpence, and we hope will have a ready sale. 

Che Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 7. NOVEMBER % 1922. No. 467 


The monthly meeting of the Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, gth October, 1922. 

The president, Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., occupied the 
chair > and about fifty members and visitors were present. 

A report of the excursion to Cheltenham on Saturday, 16th 
September, was given by Mr. A. J. Tadgell, who acted as 
leader in the unavoidable absence of Mr. H. B. Williamson, 
F.L.S., stating ^ that, notwithstanding threatening weathe:, 
a good party of members and friends had taken part in the 
outing. Quite a number of the early spring flowers -were at 
their best; about seventy species were collected and named 
during the afternoon, and, in addition, twenty-two species 
of exotics were noted. Nine species of orchids were collected, 
of which the "Tall Piuris," D. lottg-ifoUa, and the "Blue 
fairies/' Catadema deformis, wore the most admired. Other 
notable plants were the " Showy Bossia*a/' B. cineyea, the 
u Hairy Actus-/' A, viltosa, and the " Scarlet Sundew/" Drouta 

A repot t of the excursion to Alphington on Saturday. 23rd 
September, was forwarded by the leader, Mr, J. Searle, who 
said that there was a fair attendance of pond-life enthusiasts, 
but there was nothing striding in the captures, the results being 
much the same as reported on previous excursions to the 

A short report of the visit to Natya, via Piangil, on the 
Murray (below Swan Hill), from Saturday, 23rd September, 
to 2nd October was given by Mr. C Oke, who said that the 
small party had worked enthusiastically and made a number 
of interesting captures, especially in entomology, which would 
be detailed at a later date. 

The excursion set down fot Toorourrong for Thursday, 28th 
September (Show Day), was not held, owing to the poor response 
by members. 

A report of the excursion to Blackburn on Saturday, 30th 
Septemher, was given by the leader, Mr. A. J. Tadgcll, who 
said that again threatening weather had not damped the 
enthusiasm of a number of members in meeting for a ramble at 
Blackburn. However, at four o'clock rain put an end to woik 
in the open, and the friendly shelter of a tea-room was sought, 
where the finds were discussed and suggestions were made for 
extending the usefulness of the Club and its objects. About 
seventy species of plants were noted and named, as well as 

7* Field Naluffh&W Club—Procc&din^. [v^xxxi'x. 

fifteen aliens. Of these, the "Golden Bush-Pea," Pultencm 
Gumm, the u Hop Bitter-Pen/' Dmiesia lalifofin, and the 
" Narrow Bitter-Pea," D. corymbosa, were the most, noticeable. 
Seven orchids were collected, all common species. Among the 
■ aliens noted was the "Wild Onion," Nolhoscotihmt fragrant. 

A report of the excursion to JLangwanin on Saturday, 7th 
October, was given by the leader, Mr, H, B. Williamson,, who 
stated that an interesting day had been spent, mostly in quest 
of orchids, of which a dozen species were noted. Following 
the railway line, a turn was made t<nvaid$ Baxter State school, 
where, on a springy hillside:, the Caladeni3S deforims, Memicsii, 
cumez, and dilalaia, together with Clossodia major, Thtlyvtiira 
antennifcra, Diuns longifolia, D. nlaculata, D. fecimuidala, and 
D. p&lochila, were gathered. Some were very much more 
plentiful than others- Thelymitra hileo-ciliata had been 
recorded {rom this neighbourhood, but diligent search failed 
to reveal a specimen; pCThaps it was too eaily. After lunch 
a tract of (< bandnngham country " was passed through, and 
Caladcnw PaUrsani added to the list. Further on the most 
important find of the day was made in Bm-mUui cuneatu, of 
which three specimens were seen. Further search did not add 
to the list of species, and the evening train was taken for horn*?. 


On a ballot being taken. Miss D. King, 23 Locke-street, 
Ussendon . Miss Marjorie Warner, Hampton-street, Hampton; 
and Mr. J. 5. Anderson. 17 Chiystobel-crcsceut, Hawthorn, 
were duly elected members of the Club. 


The hon. treasurer, Mr. F. Pitcher, reported that there would 
be a good credit balance as the result of the recent exhibition 
of wild-flowers, hue as neither sales of tickets nor items of 
expenditure were all in yet he could not definitely state what 
amount would be available for division between the Club and 
the Children's Hospital. 

The merits and management of the recent exhibition were 
freely discussed by several members, and from their remarks 
it is hoped some suggestions may he secured which will be of 
use on. future occasions. It should be borne in mind, how- 
ever, when offering criticism, that there is no comparison 
between the displaying of flowers an an ordinary horticultural 
show, where it is known beforehand what will be exhibited, 
and a wild-flower exhibition, where everything is an unknown 
quantity until the last moment. On this occasion the ex- 
hibition suffered considerably through exhibits being delayed 
on the. railways and by earners. 

?£V] F *d* Naturalists* Club— Proceedings. 70 

The chairman reported, with regard to the traffic in Aus- 
tralian birds and animals mentioned at the last meeting, that 
a representative deputation had waited on the Federal Minister 
of Customs on the matter, and had been received sympathetically, 
and a promise had been given that regulations would be framed 
to meet the wishes of the deputation and submitted ' to the 
interested societies for their approval. 


By Mr, C. Oke, entitled "An Entomologist in the Dande- 
nongs in Winter" (continued). 

The author continued fats remarks proving that entomology 
can be successfully followed, even in winter, in such varied 
country as the Dandenong Ranged mainly owing to the amount 
of shelter provided by the dense vegetation. 

The reading of the paper led to a discussion as to whether 
the red-striped spider or centipedes are really poisonous and 
dangerous to human beings. Mr. C, Cox said that he had 
" cuK'd " a bite from a centipede by means of nicotine from 
a tobacco pipe. The chairman remarked that he had been 
bitten by a large centipede, but did nothing, and no untoward 
results happened. Mr. Oke said he doubted whether the 
red-striped spider was really dangerous, and thought that if 
any unpleasant results ensued it was due to the effects of fear 
or of the person bitten being in indifferent health. He had 
known of two persons being bitten who had not suffered more 
than if stung by a bee or an ant. Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., 
said that Dr. W. Macgilhvray, of Broken Hill, had told him 
that he had known of very painful results following the bite 
of this spider, and that he had treated several cases, 


By Mr. G. Coghill. — Gvevillca yosmatinijolia, grown in hi? 
garden at Canterbury. 

By Mrs. Coleman. — Orchids from Healcsville. 

By Mr C. Daley, F.L.S. — Turquoise from King River, North- 
East Victoria. 

By Mr, J. E. Dixon. — Forty-four species of Coleoptera ; a 
rare fungus, Battarrva phalloidcs : scorpion from near the 
River Mm ray — all collected during the excursion to the iNatya 

By Mr. C. French, jun— Orchid in bloom, Dandmhimn 
striolatuin, from Bairnsdale. 

By Mr. C. Oke— Arachnids, Myriapods, and insects m illus- 
tration of his paper. 

By Geological Survey of Victoria (per Mr. A. E. Rodda},— 
Fossil plane impressions from coal bore. Mixboo. 

fio . Field Naturahtis* Ctub—Prouedin^s. [v£ xxxik. 

By Mi*. A. E. Rorlda. — Photographs of native animals, as 
follows; — Wombat, Echidna, Koala, F"mg*tailed Possum, taken 
at WalhaJla. 

By Mr. A. L Scott.— Tarawera ejecta, collected from Icying- 
pan Flat side of Lake Rotomahana, New Zealand, 

By Mr. H. B. Williamson. — Orchids, including Burncttia 
ameata, from Langwarrin . specimen of Pink BUddciwort, 
Polypo?nf>holyx tenella, showing under the microscope the vesicles 
on the roots for the absorption of nutrient matter. 
* After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated 


Fok this year's exhibition the Club was successful in securing 
the Melbourne Town Hall, and on Tuesday, 3rd OctolK-r, it 
again presented a gay aud animated appearance owing to 
the fine display of flowers and the large attendance of the 

In the unavoidable absence of His Excellency the Governor- 
General, Lord Forster, the. exhibition was opened by Sir Robert 
Best, M.H.R., who congratulated the Club on the excellent 
display and the good work it was doing in encouraging the 
growing of native flowers, and by means of these exhibitions 
bringing the attractiveness of out native flora under the notice 
of the general public. The president of the Club, Mr. Chas. 
Daley, B A., F.L.S.. in thanking Sir Robert Best for his kindly 
remarks, said that the Club had a members' roll of about 300 
persons, but all were not interested an plants, such hobbies as 
butterflies, beetles, shells, or rocks each having its circle of 
votaries. The Mayor of Geelong (Alderman Hitchcock) spoke 
Of the interest and pleasure to be derived from the cultivation 
of native plants in one's garden, saying that, as all our garden 
plants were derived from wild types, there was no knowing 
what results might be obtained by persistent cultivation. 

On the platform was a fine display of cut flowers and foliage, 
forwarded by Mr. J. Cronin, Director of the Botanic Gardens. 
The flowers were alt Australian natives, which have been 
growing in the Gardens for years, and included some very choice 
examples. Among these were Olcaria panosus (Vic ), Anofikns 
glandutosus, the Tasmapian Laurel, Chaniftlaucittni unci vat-tun, 
the Geraldton (W.A.) Wax-flower, also Chorizemas, Grcvilleas, 
cucalypts, (Sec, bom Western Australia — that land of wonderful 

From the gardens of Mr. J. M. Watson, Balwyn ; Mr. Geo. 
Coghilb Mr. P. Keep, and Mr. F B. Sutherland, Canterbury; 
Mr, Alister Clark. Bulla; and Mr. S. Blake, Jvanhoe, came a 
large variety of cultivated Australian flowers, showing Lhe 

^••1 tlxhibUion oj WiH-ftme^- &l 

133* J 

decorative value of many of our wild Mowers, while Mr. Russell 
Grimwade, of Toorak, showed blooms of Eucalyptus Preissiana, 
a Western Australian gum, grown from seed planted only four 
years ago. The bloomy wore very large and showy, being of 
a deep lettlOU shade, Mr. A. C. Chandler, of Croydon, exhibited 
an improved strain of Western Australian Everlastings, while 
Mr. B. Chandler, of Bayswater, forwarded some greatly-im- 
proved Boronia. 

An interesting display of orchids was made by Mrs. Coleman 
(of Blackburn), Mrs. C. French, jun., and others, some forty 
or Ofty species, collected at Healesville, Ringwood, Blackburn, 
&c, being staged ; among these were Cahya tffejhf, the Flying 
Dack Orchid, and Sitrcochtlus folcatus (epiphytal). Orchids 
were, also exhibited by Mrs, Best (Heyfield), Masters J, and N. 
Pescott, C. Rcsch, G. H. Jones, J. Hill, and others. 'The lady 
students of tlie Burnley Horticultural Gardens exhibited a 
fine collection of Mild-flowers from Kingwood. 

A number of willing hands, und^r the direction of Mr. H. B. 
Williamson, F.L.S... arranged the flowers as quickly as possible, 
mainly as to localities, but species of some of the moi-e important 
orders were gi'onped together on special tables. As far as 
possible the flowers from other States were kept together. 

Flowers came from all parts of Victoria, and the Club Is 
deeply indebted to those members and friends who interested 
themselves in collecting and forwarding the many beautiful 
specimens, Mr. J. H. Maiden. F.L.S., Director of the Botanic 
Gardens, Sydney, sent a nice selection of New South Wales 
flowers. Mr, E. Ising, lion, secretary of the South Australian 
Naturalists' Society, forwarded a collection of South Aus- 
tralian flowers. From Western Australia a fine representative 
collection uf about forty species was received, through Miss 
Fuller, from Miss A. Morgan, of Darlington. Some of thesi- 
had been exhibited in Perth the previous week, 

The- usual difficulty was experienced in compiling a complete 
list of exhibitors, owing to the fact that many persons for- 
ward boxes without any indication of the sender's name or 
the locality where gathered. 

As neaiiy as could be ascertained, about three hundred 
species of wild-flowers were exhibited Mr. H, B. Williamson, 
FL.5-, contributes the following notes regarding some of the 
exhibits; — From Lome the Rev, A. C. F. Gates, M.A., sen* 
abont fifty species, including Pkyllanthus Cunnti and Thomasia 
petidocalyx, flowers not often seen. Bairnsdale was well 
represented by a nice, lot sent by Mr. T. S. Hart, 1\1A , 
including Pterostylis falcata and F.yiosteman ifachyphyllu$ t 
From the Otway Forest some very fine blooms 'of ProsiutrthcYx 
mclissijolia, Pkebahum {Erioslemon) Billardicri (SatiiiWood), and 

82 Exhibition of WiM-fiatim^ [vot'xxxiX. 

some serviceable fern roots were sent by Miss Lily Watson, 
of Laver's Hill. Miss tsobel Hisiop, in conjunction with Willie, 
Millie, and Tommy Lucas, also .sent from Carlisle River ferns 
-as well as forest blooms, among which was a fine supply of a 
new species of I had lately described, but the descrip- 
tion has not yrt been published. T3ie North-Eastern district 
was represented by Blue Peas, Swainsona procumbens, from 
Mrs. Read r of Spiinghurst, and orchids. Grass-Lilies, and 
Grcvilleas from Mrs. J. W. Boucher, of ChiJtcrn. Mr. T. A. 
Robinson, of Dutson, Sale, sent Sprengclia. Dwpieva strict^, 
arid the pretty pink Sowetb&a -ju-ncea,' The Mallee district 
was in evidence mainly through the efforts of Mr. C. Oke, the 
hon. secreraiy. and the camping party at Natya, Mi. F. Holt, 
of the Water Commission, Bolton, pupils of the State school, 
Rolton, Miss Viotet Hickey. Pinnaroo, S.A. (Murrayvillc plants), 
Mrs. A. M. Howard, of Golton South, near Lubeck, and Mr. 
.1, P. Flynn, u( Diapur. Mr. Oke ha,d spent a week in the 
northern Malice, and his contribution of plants from Natya 
contained the interesting Three-winged Blue-bush, Kochxa 
ifiptera, the fruits of which rival in beauty the more common 
K, villosa, The Ming or Bitter Quandong fin fruit), several 
Cassias, including the rarer C. pkyllodinea, and the Splendid 
Aster, Olearw magni flora, were among these plants. Mr. 
Bolton's contribution included the beautiful Orange Imrnoi telle, 
Waitzia corymbosa, and the -showy Cassia Sturtii. The well- 
known Fairy Wax-flower, the Anemone Boron ia, together fifth. 
six species of Acacia and seven species of eucalypts, and about 
a dozen other species, were sent Irani Bendigo by Mr D J. 
Paton. Among the eucalypts was the Blue Malice, E. frulict- 
iofwn (polybyactea), so famed for iU oil of special quality. By 
the good offices of Mr. C. W D'Alton, of Hall's Gap, a splendid 
show of Grampian plants was made, the favourites, Thrypto* 
mene. Lhotzkya, Bauera, and Calytnx, being in abundance. 
A welcome contribution was a large quantity of Borovia pwnvta t 
obtained through the agency of the Misses Curnc, of Lardncr. 
and gathered by May Bingham, Betty Hardie, and Alice 
Maddock, of Jindivick. "' Queen Bee ' J of the Farmers' 
Advocate was instrumental in obtaining contributions from 
several country "bees," among whom were the three girls 
mentioned above, Edna Samuel, of Lang Lang, and some 
whose ,r hum M has not reached us, though the honey has. 

The following is a fairly complete list of localities from which 
flowers were received : — 

North-West —Natya. C. Oke and party; Halls Gap. W_ E. 
Won en, A. T. and C. W- D'Alton; Piapur, J. P. PJynn; 
Wedderburn, Miss E. Gray; St. Arnaud, Miss E. Edward?-: 
Bolton, F. Holt; Golton South, via Lubeck, Mrs, .Howard. 

^•] Jlxhibiiion of Wild '■ flowers. 83 

Soath-West.— Laser's Hill, Miss L. Watson; Carlisle River, 
Miss I. Hislop, Miss M. Lucas, Masters W. and T. Lucas ; 
Lome, Miss Anderson, Rev. A. C. Gates; Coleraine* A. 

North. — Taradale, Misses V. and E. Hansford, G. Coghill; 
Castlernaine, F. Shugg ; Bcndigo, D. J. Patois H. C. James; 
Rushworth, F. Rich ; Fryers-town, Miss G, Nokes. 

South. — Hurst's Bridge, Miss Moffat, Miss Downing ; Eltham, 
A. Tunge; Greensboro ugh, — Ford, Digger's Rest. Miss J. 
M'Kenzie ; Clayton, D, Morgan,; Pakcnham, F. WisewouM; 
Seville, • — Meager; Boronia, Miss E. Mackenzie; Lang- Lang, 
Miss E. Samuel ; Red Hill, Drum ana, G Higgins ; Sandnnghain, 
Misses H. aud L. Kenvig, Miss G. Nokes j Blank Rock r Miss 
Fordyce ; Keilor, A. J Tadgell. 

North-East. — Lima East, Mrs. A. J. Evans ; Chiltern, Mrs. 
J. W. Boucker; Spnnghurst, Mrs J. D. Read 

East. — Jindivick, Misses Lyall, M. Bingham, B. Hardie, and 
A. Maddock ; Droutn, Mrs. F.Dyall ; Lardnex, Miss C. C. Curric ; 
Warragul, Miss V. F, Pratt; Hey field. Mrs. Best; Dutson, 
T. A. Robinson ; Bairnsdale, T. S. Hart ; Gorrnandale, Rev. 
A. J. Maher. 

-. New South Wales. — Mosman, L. Cameron; Rose Bay, A, N. 
Barns; Corowa, S. Singleton* Mulwala, Mis, J. White; 
Tenigal, Mrs. T. G. Harm, H. C. Butler; and Hilltop, J, 

Lender about a dozen microscopes, exhibited by Miss M, 
Harvic, Miss M. Gordon, B.Sc. Miss E. M. Derrick, B.A., 
Messrs Is Chapman, A.L.S., G. Berthon, J. Stickland, P. C. 
Morrison, A. L. Scott, and F. H. Baker, were a number of in- 
teresting objects, such as sections of plant tissues, pond flora, 
common seeds, wood sections (fossil and living), pollen, and 
leaf hairs. These were much appreciated, judging by the 
numbers of persons always waiting their opportunity to see 
the slides ; and thanks are due to the exhibitors for giving up 
so much of their time in the interests of micro-natural history, 

A party of lady friends, under the direction of Miss Gabriel, 
conducted an afternoon tea stall, which resulted in £14 being 
added to the takings. 

The sales of flowers and pot plants (native shrubs) were in 
the hands of Miss A. Fuller and -a number of ladies, who weie 
kept busy both afternoon and evening. 

The thanks of the Club are due to the Argus for occasional 
paragraphs inserted previous to the day of the exhibition, and 
for an appreciative report the next day. The Age also published 
a good report, and was good enough to supply a laige quantify 
of paper for covering the tables. 

Decorative. material for the hall was kindly supplied by the 

84 £%kiiMion oj. Wild- flowed . [vS% xie ! V 

Director of the Botanic Gardens, and by Mr. 1\ Pitcher, from 

The financial result is not quite complete, but it is expected 
that at least £75 will bo the Children's Hospital share of the 



Auv^ntage was again taken of the Railways excursion to 
Bcndigo on Saturday, 9th September, to- make a. fourth trip 
to that district and add a few more names to the list of plants 
recorded in previous Naturalists (TS'ov,, xgj*), December, 1930, 
and January, 1922). Splendid weather favoured us on this 
occasion, and an interesting time was spent, although, as the 
bush was suffering from a prolonged dry spell, the botanical 
results were not so good as usual. Our Saturday trip was to 
Ironstone Hill, about four miles due north from Bcndigo. At 
many places in this pad the soil has been repeatedly turned 
over; nevertheless fair botany is still available. The flora 
partakes something of the Wbtpstick formation, r hough only 
one isolated patch of Eucalyptus viridia was seen. Amongst 
Acacias, A. atinacca, A. calannfolia, A, hfirvsa, and A, 
pyenantha made the best show. Other notable plants were 
Rybanthus fionbundus, Bwckra diffusa, Wvstnngia rigid*, 
Lissanlhe ztrigosa, and the orchids Pterostytis nana and mxttua. 
On Sunday we went by cab to South Mandurang, about eleven 
miles to the south, where we found a wealth of flowers- 
Eriostchton obovahs and Tctrathcca ciliata were fine, and the 
three local Grevilleas — G\ lanige-m, G. rosmarini folia, and G. 
aqmfohunt — were all found in quantity. Hardenbergia made 
a good display, and the wattles, especially A- pyenantha and 
A* dealbata, were at their best, Orchids were not common, 
with the exception of Diuris macidata and D. pedunculate. 
Others seen were Ptcroslylis curta. P. nutans, P. nana, and P. 
longifalia, and Caladcnia deformis. Twenty-four species of 
flowers were found on Saturday, and forty-five on Sunday. 
Birds were not numerous. The Pallid and the Bronze Cuckoos 
were reitcrant with their mournful notes, whilst the Crested 
Bell-hirds at Manduraug were in full song. The Magpie-Lai fc> 
White-fronted Heron. Scailct-breasted Kobin, Wattle-birds, 
and Rosella Parrots were also seen. 

Messrs. Thorn and Bums devoted themselves to entomology, 
and report as follows: — " Our main object at Ironstone Hill 
was to secure the larvae of Nwhtcta $gn$ottt, a small butterfly 
of the order Lycsenidit. To obtain these the bushes on which 
xhvy feed, Daviesia uiiriw, had to be beaten. We were 
successful from, the beginning, the first bush yielding six larvae. 

•fej^ Excursion to UemUgo. 85 

We had only to beat about a dozen bushes to secure all we 
desired- These were sent away at once by post to our fclluw- 
merubcr, Mr. G. A. Wateihouse, FES., of Sydney, to be 
figured in his forthcoming work on the life-histories of Aus- 
tralian Rhopaloceja, Another species which we "were veiy 
anxious to secure was the form simplexa of Candchdcs 
hyacsnthtna, which occurs only in t|ie Mallee and in South 
Australia, We were rewarded by capturing a female specimen 
in fine condition, near a patch ot Its food plant, CussyUui 
glabella, This butterfly was \ first recorded for Victoria in 
October, 1921. We also secured a female oi Neohcj.a scr-pentaUt, 
and saw specimens of Pyramcis ilea and Pyrantels carditi 
Kefshawi, both common Victorian species Moths were not 
plentiful, but several small species belonging to the genus 
Philobata and a- fine Tortnx were secured whilst beating a 
bush of Daviesia ulicina. A large, number of species of loopcr 
caterpillars — Geometric! larvae — were also obtained whilst 
beating bushes: Beetles were scarce, only a few ' click ' 
beetles, ElateridK, being obtained under loose bark, while one 
species of ground beetle, Carab, was found beneath a stone. 
Hymcnoptera (ants, wasps, &c.) were also scarce, one species 
of Thynnid (flower wasp), two species of native bees, and one 
species of Ichneumon (parasitic wasp) being taken. Diptcra 
(flies) were also poorly represented, three species of Syrphidas 
(hover flies) and the common blowfly. Musca. being all th?t 
were noticed. "Representatives of the remaining orders were 
absent. Sunday was fine and warm, with very little wind ; 
Our expectations at Manduiartg were high. Two additional 
species of butterflies were captured — namely, blacad-uba 
hiucellata, a small Lycaenid., and Candaltdes acasta, also a Lycjaenid. 
More moths were also taken, including several more specie* of 
CE.jophoridffi, while one fine Geometric! was taken on a small 
dead sapling. More larvse were found whilst beating bushes. 
No more new hectics were taken. The warmth of the day 
greatly increased the number of species of Hyinenoptera ; four 
species of native bees were taken, three Thynnids, and about a 
dozen Ichneumomdse. The ants noticed were the common 
red meat-ant, lyidomyrmex dekctm, and one species of jumper, 
Myrmecia ; one species of spined ant, Polyxhaehis, the metallic 
ant, EctAtomma mctallictmu and two species of small black 
ants. Crcmastogaster, Representatives of several more groups 
of flies were also observed, including one Asilid (robber fly), 
three species nt mosquito (Cuhcidat), and representatives of 
the Muscida; and Sarcophagid#. Two species of dragon-flies 
were the only representatives of the order Neuroptera taken, 
A fine large scorpion was secured beneath a stone whilst searching 
for larvae. was early in the season these results may be 

Sfi Excursion to Bmdigo. [ Jfk jjfcjSfti 

considered faidy good ; the district should, however, prove very 
productive in the mid-season." 

The following plants have not been recorded on previous 
excursions to this district : — 


Glycine clandestine. 
Acacia dealbata. 


Loranthus p*nduhis (ftuit). 
CoomcNiACE.i;: — 

Goodenia geuieulata. 

L^iacopogon virgatu*. 
Li*santhc (Stypltdia) slri* 
ORcniDE^: — 

CaJadeum d ef oralis. 

D. J. Paton. 
Chas. Daiey. 

Ethnology.— The trustees of the Melbourne Public Library 
and Museums have issued a third edition of the "Guide to the 
Australian Ethnological Collection Exhibited in the National 
Jduseum, Melbourne." It is from the pen of Sir Baldwin 
Spencer, K.C.M.G.. F.R.5.. D.Litt., M.A.. D.Sc, Hon. Director 
of the Museum, It extends to one hundred and forty-two 
pages, and is illustrated by 33 plates. The guide is far more 
than a list of exhibits. Each case is taken separately and its 
contents described, so that it becomes almost a handbook to 
the subject, and, as a large number of the objects were collected 
by the author, we may rest assured that the descriptions given 
of the uses of the various articles are correct, and not mere 
supposition. The museum possesses many more specimens 
than those on exhibition, limitations of space presenting many 
interesting items being placed on view. 

The MotE and Field Crickets.— The following extract from 
Dr. Leach's. " Australian Nature Studies " may be taken as an 
example of the style in which the book is written; — "The 
burrowing mole-cricket is perfectly adapted for his burrowing 
life. His fore-legs are shovels and shears. They are supported 
on the large, well-developed fore-chest Though ferocious- 
looking, the mole-cricket is a harmless, interesting animal. The 
burrowing may loosen and destroy some plants, but the 
ploughing and burrowing must do much good. The food is 
disputed ; possibly the animal is partly carnivorous. The black 
field-cricket is active and difficult to capture. Like the mole- 
cricket, it is musical, and produces sound in the same way — by 
rubbing the scraper of one wing over the file of the other. The 
overlapping fore-wings are large and turned down at the side 
to fit the body. The under-wings fold fanwise. projecting 
beyond the body. The cerci are long and pointed. The egg- 
placer is long also. A female field-cricket has, therefore, five 
long structures projecting past the body — two wings, twoccrci, 
and an egg-placer. Mole-crickets have no egg-placer,'.' 

*£;•] A urns, A Circuit of iho Grampians. . S7 


By J. W Audas, F.L.S., FR.M.S, National Herbarium, 

QRoad before the FialU Naturalists' Club 0/ Vtcto*iti t 1 4/fc August t 1922.) 

Fok the past ten years I have made an annual visit to the 
Grampians in the spring time, and have now completed a 
botanical survey ot the entire area, which comprises about 
450 square miles On many of these trips I have been accom- 
panied by my friend, the enthusiastic and experienced Mr. 
C. W. D'Alton, but on this latter occasion, when I purposed 
to encompass the whole district, I was fortunate in also having 
the company of Mr. A. T. D'Alton. 

Having made so many trips to special parts during these 
ten years, there was really no particular locality m which we 
could hope to discover anything new or rare, and this fact 
confirmed my desire to make the round trip. Accordingly, we 
started from Hall's Gap in a comfortable waggonette drawn 
by two sturdy horses on Tuesday, 29th November, 1921, We 
found the roads rather cut up by heavy timber waggons fur 
the first few miles, but as we passed Fyans Creek, and began 
to travel more elevated ground towards Mount Dryden, they 
improved, This hill differs in composition iiom the usual 
sandstone of the Grampians, for it is composed of basaltic rock. 
A circulating view from the summit reveals Lake Lonsdale, 
the Serra and Mount William Ranges, and the town of StawelJ. 
Travelling northwards, we crossed the Little Wimrneia River 
and rested for lunch. Profuse growths of sedges, grasses, and 
rushes along the river-bank hejc proved interesting, arid we 
noted the prominence of the* 1 Tall Spear-grass/' Siifa pubescens, 
" Branching Rush," /uncus fritmatacarpus , rl Short-stemmed 
Sedge/' Carsx brcvicuhnis, and "Common Bulrush," Typhu 
angmtifulid It was a vniy pretty flight to watch a Black Duck 
sporting her young brood on a near by pool, while a large Hock 
of White Cockatoos circled, screeclung, overhead- 
Proceeding, we passed the homestead of Ledcourt station, 
and, the condition of the roads having greatly improved, we 
made rapid progress. Scaring Dadswell s, we entered heathy 
country, and beautiful flowering shrubs became much in 
evidence, there were many fine specimens of the (t Cross 
Honey Myrtle/* Melaleuca dunssala. This is a veiy ornamental 

* Previous papers by JVIY Audas* arc; — ''One 0/ Nature's Wondcrlaau'6 — 
the Victorian Grampians." Vict. Nat., February, 1913 (**!*.. p. 146) T 
"The Gr&fripians Revisited." Vict. Nat, June. IQJ4 (xxxi., p- 24) '* 
"Nature in the 3erra Ra-nge," Vict. Nat , April, 1919 (xxxv., p. 171); 
"Through the Murra Murra Country (Western Grampians)." Vicl. Nat., 
September, 1920 (atxxvji,, p. 59); "Through the Bilangum Ranges and 
at Rose's Gap," Vict, Nat.', May, 1931 (xxxviiL, p* 4). 



Audas, A Circuit of the Gvamftians. 

vie*. Km. 


shrub, having pale piok flowers, which bears transplanting 
well, and flourishes in gardens. The " Common Fringe Myrtle," 
Calytfix tetragona, has flowers of much brighter shade of pink, 
and there were great clumps of the bushes, with an occasional 

Cifizutr .... 137/ ■- ..■■ 
Ciucu/t -f -» », f3 i f , ''Noiure Wtkt St*"™ Ro"QC 

C'ftc'uir .fS Jo .Thiy vgh Hurra 3g5j5 jSflj ' f > 3f 

C*»cutr -» -» (JM One of N a forts tfonatrtanaz' 

Pia*t norftj mitritif pi*?, of than peculiar h th: Grum/ttafii 

patch of the "Common Bottle-Brush," Callistcmon rugulosus, 
interspersed. The latter made a gorgeous display with its 
crimson flowers and yellow-tipped stamens against the dark 
green foliage. Continuing into the sandy country towards 

JJjJJ] Audas, .4 tifytfftQ oflflfe Grampian*. 89 

Rose's Gap, we soon sighted Briggs's Bluff towering magnificently 
above lis. Hereabouts the undergrowth was very dens^, and 
the various shrubs had reached a height not often met with 
in other parts, owing, no doubt, to this locality having escaped 
bush fires for many years, The ° Sallow Acacia/' /L longi- 
folia, in places twenty feet high, drooped its heavy-laden clusters 
of dark brown seed-pods. The " Desert Banksia," B. ornate. 
was abundant, and its cone-shaped flower-heads and serrated 
foliage showed up well among the numerous other shrubs, 
Among the latter the brown, hairy-covered leavts and Reivers 
of the tl Shiubby Velvet-bush." LayiopHakmi dasypftyUim, 
compelled attention. The well-known "Bush Heath Myrtle/* 
Thryplotnme Mitchdliana, was of extraordinary proportions, 
and the growth was almost equally luxuriant iu many uf the 
following ; — " Prickly Grevillea/ 1 G- Aqm/oliion, "Yellow 
Hakea/ 1 H. nodosa, "Coffee Coprosma." C. hirtclla, "Giant 
Hop-Bush/ r bodon&a vi$co$Q t '• Heathy Parrot Pea," Bill- 
wynia ericifolia, " Laige-leaf Bush Pea." Pidlcn&a daphnoides, 
"Yellow* Rice-l , *lower, ,, Pwtclm fiava, " Small-leat Pomuderrjs/ 1 
P. eiachophyHa l and Mountain &>nosperm, M Conospermmn 
MiU'kellii. Just as the sun dipped behind the range, leaving 
a roseate glow which foretold a fine day to follow, we arrived 
at a prosperous bee farm owned by Mr. Edson, and thai 
hospitable gentleman invited us to spend the night at his 
residence. We gladly accepted, and, after a hearty meal., 
spent an enjoyable hour before bedtime listening with interest 
to the weird bush tales of our host, who has lived so many yeai> 
in that locality. 

Keitt morning wc were early alejt, and. after a hearty 
breakfast, and with many good wishes ioi our genial host, 
we started again on our journey. The country was still heathy, 
and countless varieties of wild-flowers flourished in the sandy 
soil, amongst wluch was that peculiar little plant, EriosUmon 
diffopwiSt which has pretty waxy-white flowers and small leaves 
covered with little oil-bearing knobs. Ver5 r graceful was 
Bauera rabionies, with its trailing stems and pale pink flowers, 
which greatly resembled miniature single loses. Still more 
beautiful was* the interesting liliaceous shrub, Calectasia cyanca, 
whose lovely blue flowers will keep for a considerable time 
after being gathered. Two more quite worthy of notice were 
the tufted plant with grassy leaves and pale yellow flowers, 
Siypandva caspilvsp, and the little myrtaceous shrub, B&cki<i 

By mid-day we were rounding Mount Zero, and early in the 
afternoon had reached Rosebrook station, un the Mackenzie 
Creek. This lovely stream, with its crystal clear water, 
babbling noisily- over its rocky bed and reflecting, with enhanced 

pO Auoas, A Circuit of the (Ivumpians, [vot'xxxix. 

beauty, the luxuriant foliage along its banks, might well form 
the subject of such, another poem as Tennyson's Brook/ 1 
and brought back to mind the well-known lines, "I chatter, 
chatter a= I flow to join the brimming river," Drooping their 
graceful heads as though to admire the reflection in the dear 
water were fine specimens of the " Tassel Cord Rush," Rs&tio 
lalraphyllm, and the ' ' King Fern," Todea barhaia, besides 
many others, as Blechnum, Aspidium, Gleichenia, Pteris, 
Adiantumj Lomaria, Asplemum, and Bicksonia. Above, the 
stream was almost canopied by overhanging foliage. The 
*' Slender Honey Myrtle/' Melaleuca gthbosa, and the "Golden 
Spray." Viminafiu demidala, intertwined theu* pink and 
yellowish blossoms, forming a veritable Edeu for the numerous 
birds which inhabited the bed of the creek. We noticed the 
Blue Kingfisher, Fantail, Blue Wren, Yellow -breasted Robin, 
and the introduced Goldfinch 

Nothing bntanically interesting was met with in the next 
Jew miles, so we spared a little attention to a spot known as 
'* Geranium Springs/' where Pdaygonhwi gntveoleiis (a garden 
escape) grew profusely. Many years ago Mr. Carter, the original 
owner of kosebtuok station, experimented in pig-taramg at 
this spot, It is thought that some of the animals must have 
escaped, as wild pigs are occasionally met with in the district. 
The surrounding hills appeared to be ideal collecting ground, 
so we spent a tew hours roaming about. Shrubs and climbing 
plants displayed their florifetous beauty in entrancing variety. 
Cotrm speciosa. sometimes known as " Native Fuchsia/' usually 
seen in Bftfl or green colouring, here showed in lemon tipped 
with jade, and the flower stems were very long and slemJtr. 
Many plants attained a height of ten feel, and., with their 
slender, graceful growth and uncommon flowers, merited all 
our admiration. Further on we came npun plants of the 
better known colours — red and green — on the hills sloping to 
Mackenzie Creek. The occurence of so many forms in such 
close proximity would lead one to suggest a revision of classifica- 
tion., if only in relation to spe<;ie-s varieties. Grevilteas, 
Prostantht-ras, Olcarias, CaJytnxes, Ifoveas, Acacias, Cono- 
spcrmums, and Brachylomas here vied with each othei foi pride 
of place ; but their flamboyance did not overwhelm, but rather 
seemed to enhance, the modest beauty of Pimcle<i hgwtfinx, 
with irs elegant foliage and pretty, drooping, green-coloured 
flowers. Ghana visc^sa, locally known as u Kerosejic Bush" 
on account of its easy ignition, grew profusely. Kunzea farvi- 
Joha, a beautiful shrub with small, pink, globe-shaped flowers, 
flourished exceedingly. It has an extended blooming period, 
and would therefore prove veiy ornamental in gardens The 
11 Orange Bell Climber/ 1 Mwiantlms- btgnoniaceus, twined itself 

M&j Aur»A9. A Cmuit of ike Grampians. 91 

artistically among the Acacias, and near by were some splendid 
specimens of its congener, BUUifdieta scandens, laden with 
cylindrical fruits of livid colouring. This area proved a happy 
hunting ground j we were able to add to ouv vasculnnis Phebahw™ 
pungent, P$nttdanthus omHfolim, GrevUIca parviflota. Phyllota 
•plc-urandroidts, Okaria ciliata, Inllwynia hispid a, Brachyionin 
aricoides, Pfostantlm'a dcbilis, Lcuc&pogon ericoides, Com- 
•spcrmum paiens, Spharolobiutn daviesioidcs, Bossitva riparia, 
7 cmpiclonia Muclleri, Coyyea LawrencAana,' C- awnulctj Dodonccd 
borortifolia, Hcvca hetcyophylla, and 'Acacia Mxtchelli', also the 
following, not previously recorded by us lor the Grampians : — 
Cfyptandra hntcophtacfoi, Xanthoma dissccta, Sc-nccto Cutmmg- 
h'tmii, Pidlen&a ienuifofcUi vat. mollis, MtllofAa (emufoUa t 
Studftina Mucllcyi, M itrasacmc paradox^ , Spytidium wb- 
cchreatunt, Grevillc<i ilicifotia, vai , angusiilofw, Lmcopogov 
rufus, Brauhycome collina, Prostanthera spinosu, Logania lint- 
folia, Olearia tcrdifolia, Lotnandra leuccctpHaia, and A ctfeia 
mpicola , 

All the country passed on the way to Bnm Springs and 
Cherrypnol showed stretches of the "Curly Chaff Rush," 
Lepitlobolus drapctocdeus, and of "Porcupine Grass." Tnodw 
irritant, and most conspicuous among the other grasses Mere 
the "Nigger Heads," Pappophotum nigricans. Bearded 
Heads," Amphlpogon stricius, and "Swamp Wallaby Grass," 
Amphibromus ncrvostts. We were now many miles from 
habitation, and with the falling night shades we turned onr 
tired horses towards an unoccupied house by the roadside, 
where we decided to camp for the night. Surrounded ?>y a neai 
picket fcace, enclosing what had once been a well-kept garden, 
where long, rank grass now grew as high as the fence, it had 
evidently been long unoccupied. We put the horses in the 
garden, where they relished the grass, and rested in security 
after the strain of a fifty-mile day, while wc had some supper, 
spread our blankets on the floor, and slept soundly. 

Next morning we decided to give the horses a spell, and 
went on foot to examine the northern end of the Victoria 
Range Crossing the lower country on the way, wc discovered 
a grass-tree not previously collected ; it proved to be 
Xanthnrhcea hastihs, a new record fur the north-west of 
Victoria. It attains a height of eight feet, and can be readily 
recognized by the dense rusty tomentum covering the ends of 
the bracts and outer perianth segments, which is very con- 
spicuous before the flowers- expand. This grass-tree was in 
bloom, and the massed flower -covered spikes emitted a strong 
odour and also yielded abundant quantities of nectar, which 
caused the vicinity to be infested with numerous hymenoptcrous 
insects. Chnibing the range, we came upon the 'Coast Rice* 

92 Audas, A Circuit of the Grampians. [v^xxxiV 

Flower,' 1 Pimcka chchantha, a plant we had not previously 
collected, It is a low, rigid shrub, with slender branches, and 
minute yellow flowers in small sessile heads. We also observed 
a very luxuriant form of Spyriiwtn parvifotium, var. hirsul- 
issimutn. with very* hairy leaves, fully an inch long, and cymes 
loose and many-JieadecL We were now doing some stiff 
climbing, and as we passed along the rock crevices were covered 
with flowers of glowing colours, quite -comparable to, and almost 
rivalling, the famous flower decked terraces on the slopes of 
Mount William. In evidence were Gompholobium minus (red), 
Ifibberfia aciadaris (yellow), Prosti/nthera dcnticnlaia (purple), 
L tsptospcrrHuM lan-igmim, var . grandifoliuvi ( vvhi I e ), and 
Stypandra giauca (blue). Hehchrysums, or Everlastings, were 
innumerable, H. Baxleri being the most abundant. Two 
Grevilleas, C oleendes and G. alpina, grew luxuriantly. The 
former is a handsome shrub with olive-green leaves, having a 
soft silk down underneath, and it bears red blossoms, while the 
latter has linear-elliptical leaves with revolutc margins beset 
with velvety tomentum on the under side; its racemes of 
flowers have a corolla of deep orange to red. Wc greatly 
admired the pretty four-petalled blossoms of Ttirolhcco <4hah. 
It is often erroneously called "Wild Boronia," but it belongs 
lo the Tiemandracea* or Milkwort family. The lovely colours 
of the "Rough Mint Bush, 7 ' Proliant her a dcnttcidata, shading 
from pink to puLple, blended beautifully with the starry white 
blossoms of the w Grampian Fringe Myrtle," dUyttix Sullivani* 
which is peculiar to these parts, and here grew to a height of 
eight, feet. Being late in the season, orchids were mostly in 
seed, but a few still flowered in the sheltered sandstone crevices, 
which they resembled so closely in colouring that they were 
difficult to find; We were, howevej, successful in collecting 
three, as follows ; — Tholymtira carnca, T, MacmiUani, and 
C&ltana major. The latter were exceptionally fine specimens, 
some bearing four rlower-hcads. 

The summit of this mountain rises in steep perpendicular 
cliffs, which we were unable to climb, sa we continued along 
I he slopes foe some distance, and were able to fidd several others 
we had not previously collected — viz., Ptcrostylis rufa, Prase- 
phyllnm ihnhyiaturii, Spiyfintkes australis, f alvchilifs- campeslrr., 
and Catadema cordiformis. The mountain sides exhibit many 
interesting rock-formations, one group consisting q\ several 
chambers supported by pillars and connected by natural 
passages in the rock. Through the openings magnificent views 
of the Dundas and Black Ranges could be seen. Just after 
leaving the chambers we discovered that beautiful little shrub. 
"Rosemary Crevillea/*' G, rosMarmtfolia, covered with pretty 
rose-coloured flowers. The "Narrow-leaf Trymalium, Try- 

*™-J AtrrME, A CitcMti oj the Gmmpims. 93 

malinm Daltoni, was seen here also, but its blooming period 
had passed. Proceeding, we passed through & large area of 
"Southern Grass-tree/' Xanthoyrhcca austrahs. in full bloom, 
some of the flower-spikes rising to a height of twelve fcet. 

Reaching flai. country .again, swamp-frequenting plants 
abounded, such; as Sprettgctia incamaia, P-itltctnza Lurfxmanni, 
Xyt'is gracilis, Epacns obtustfolia, Melaleuca squatnea, Virmnarin 
df-nttdala, Sfk&tolobiuM vitnincum, CrcviiUa parvifiora, Pultencsa 
laxiflom, Veronica Derwentda, and Paiersonia lungiscapa — the. 
latter being particularly numerous and beautiful. It is, how- 
ever, of such a fugacious nature that one's admiration must be 
limited to viewing it unpicked. It was late afternoon before we 
reached camp after this strenuous walk, so we prepared a late 
luncheon and started onward again- The marshes were a 
glorious medley of myrtaccous plants, and the perfumes of 
Honey Myrtle, BottLe -brush, and Tea-tree wafted to us on 
the spring breeze were delightful. After crossing the Glenelg 
River we soon reached the Horsham to Hamilton road, on 
which we made rapid progress through Glenisla East, and passed 
the Lambruk Bee Farm, arriving towards evening at W'oolphur 
station, which is about fifteen miles from Cavendish. Here 
we received a most hospitable welcome from Mr, Silcock, the 
owner of " Woolphur," and stayed the mght. A very good 
class of sheep are raised on this estate, and very valuable red 
gum timber grows on the flat country about the district- 
Passing through the paddocks, we wcjc surprised to sec au 
old man kangaroo grazing contentedly with the horses. We 
1 earned later that he was a much-valued pet belonging to Miss. 

Our progress at this stage was held up for half a day by heavy 
rain, but we spent an interesting morning acquiring a knowledge 
of the locality from our host,, who has lived forty years there. 
Towards noon the clouds dispersed and we started again In 
the direction of Dunkeld. After passing the settlement known 
as Victoria Lagoon, wc decided to follow the bush track, which 
would take us nearer the ranges, and were soon deep in a 
labyrinth <rf heathy country, where, as usual, wild-flowers 
abounded, prominent among which were the beautiful ma/aiine 
flowers of the " Spreading Flax Lily/ 1 Dianella rciwfata k and the 
gurgeous red and yellow of the "Parrot Peas," Dillwvnia 
hispida and D. florih-unda, Lcplosficrmhm myrstnvtiicb showed 
fine, large, pcach-blossom-like flowers, and Butsitrui spinqsa 
pure White flowers I the latter plant is rather a distinct variety, 
growing only about two feet high. Boronia polygaiij'olUi^ with 
delicately-perfumed flowers of white and very pale pmk, 
abounded. Here the three grass-trees recorded for Victoria 
were stcn together ; they are Xanthotrh/xa aiis/Y(4is t X. minor, 

94 Auda9, A Circuit oj the (hawjnans. [vl!?k"xxYx. 

and X< haslilis, the latter being the. one we had observed for 
the first Lirae near the northern end of Victoria Range It 
appears to confine itself to the Hat country between Ute Black 
and the Victoria Ranges There was much to attract onr 
attention as wc passed slowly through tins scrubby coutitiy. 
and we no ted. the following in full bloom \<—Cono$pmmm 
Mitchelliif Lhotzkya gmciyiioides, Lcucopogon V*> gains, Acrolrkha 
lr.difolia t Slankhoissia viminm, Pimelea wrm flora, Euphrasia 
coilina, Bt achy lama dapknoides. Coma csmttla, and Cryptandra 
umara ; the latter js a thorny, sub*erect shrub, which bears a 
profusion of small, white, bell-shaped flowers. " Victoria 
Park/* the estate of Mr, Alexander Robertson, lies at the e-xtreme 
end of Victoria Range, and here we spent oui next night. After 
an enjoyable evening we slept soundly till awakened by the 
clanging of the cook's bell, which announced breakfast. We 
next decided to examine the hills around about, but our tour 
proved very uninteresting botanically ; but, had our subject 
been zoology, it would certainly have proved more Interesting, 
for wild animals were very numerous. We saw wallaby, foxes. 
hares, kangaroos, and rabbits innumerable. Birds also com. 
roanded attention, and our list of feathered friends ran into 

Leaving Victoria Park t we crossed through marshy ground m 
the direction of Mounts Sturgeou and Abiapt. The Jagoons 
revealed a wealth of watcr-loving plants, such as Mynofhylhm 
variifoliiwt, Af. elatinoides, Potamoget-on nutans, Tnglvchin 
pyocera, T. striata, and Ranunculus aquatihs. Near the. margins 
the principal plants were Cypcvus htcidus, Villarsia re-mjvrwis, 
Phragmics communis, CoMita eojmopifolia, Gratiola pemviami, 
and Glyotria fiwitaas ; the latter is one of the best (odder grasses 
for damp localities. It often grows two feet high, and its 
seeds are sweet and palatable, being eaten by fish and all gramin- 
ivorous birds. There is fine fertile country around Dunkeld, 
and the crops were well forward in the paddocks. Wc noted 
that some crops of oats were badly infesfed by carexpiUar, 
which, unfortunately, is much in evidence at this season. Two 
weeds flourished in the grazing paddocks, They were the 
" Blue Eryngo," Eryngmm to stratum, and " Chicory," 
Cichonum int-ybus. Both were in bloom, and their pretty blue 
flowers were distinctly attractive. The former is a native 
member of the Umbelliferae, often called "Blue Devil. *' It 
has a perennial ioot stock, and is hard to eradicate. The latter 
is a well-known perennial belonging to the Coinposita:. When 
giowiug wild it spreads rapidly, hut loses its value as a surrogate 
for coffee. 

Before reaching the township of Dunkeld we had to pass 
through forest country in the gap between Mounts Sturgeon 

and Abrupt. The hillsides were masses of yellow blooms. 
There were 4cart« Mitchelli, Goodia loti-folia, Dillwy-niu fori- 
hunda, PuUcnati humitts, P. Gimnn, HibbeHia stricla, H, denst- 
fiota, Gompholohmm Htagdii, and Platylobhtm obhisangidim, 
while in many places a delightful contrast was introduced by 
the trailing blue flowers of the pretty "Love Creepei," Come- 
spevtna volubtle, which festooned itself on all the bracken fern 
and undergrowth* upon which it depends for support 

We had now crossed the saddle, and, after passing the 
Wanuon River, entered the prettily-situated township. Our 
attention was soon attracted to a monument of Major Mitrheli, 
who was supposed to have ascended Mount Abrupt when he 
traversed the district 1rt 1836. A twenty -mile run, ftotn here 
took us through the Yarram estate to Watgaiiia. where we 
stayed at M Lakcvjew." the home of Mr. Slattery, which over- 
looks Lake Muirhead, 

Mistaking the road delayed us greatly on out* way to Moyston 
next day. This once thriving goldfictds township is now but 
a mere" village. Working onward towards Hall ! s Gap, we 
passed the Pomonal orchards en rotHe, and arrived back at our 
starting-point about 7.30 that evening. This six days* tour 
completed a circuit of 182 miles, averaging about thirty miles 
per day. From a botanical point of view, however, we were 
not altogether satisfied, the roads being, in many places, too 
far from the ranges to permit of our making an examination 
in the time available. Wc. would have liked to go over the 
Dundas and Black Ranges and other outlying hills, where, 
doubtless, many forms of interesting flora are yet to be found. 

The trip proved very enjoyable. For the scenery alone it 
was well worth the journey. We viewed scenes ol rugged 
grandeur' on the mountain ranges, and on the lower stretches 
red yum forests of great age ; peaceful cultivated valleys, 
with their orchards, smiling wheat-fields, and cosy homesteads; 
noisy, babbling mountain streams, and broad, lazy rivers. 
Everywhere the local people treated us most hospitably, which 
greatly added to the enjoyment. 

For the plan accompanying this paper 1 am indebted to Mr. 
A. D. Hardy, of the Forests "Department. Though on a Jather 
small scale, readers should be able to follow the routes I have 
taken in mv several Grampian trips. 

Ttt£ Australian Museum Magazine. — The sixth number, for 
October, 1922, of this journal is to hand. It contains an ex- 
cellent series of illustrated articles on various phases of natural 
history written in a popular manner so as to engage the atten- 
tion of the ordinary reader, and is a very good shillingsworth. 

9 6 Bo<xt Notice. Iv^wfa 


Australian Nature Studies. By J A. Leach, D.Sc, 
C.M.B.O.U., Organizing Inspector of Nature Study and 
Senior Inspector of Schools, Victoria. 512 pp. (SJ x 5$), 
with six plates in colour and 2.000 black-and-white 
drawings. Melbourne : Critchley Parker, 1022. Price 
125. 6d. 

Nearly twelve years ago we had the pleasure of reviewing in 
these columns the author n well-known vohtme, " An Aus- 
tralian Bud Book/' which has stood the test of time and 
become a household necessity amongst bird-lovers, The present 
volume is perhaps more ambitious, covering the whole range of 
animal and vegetable life, besides a dozen chapters undo: the 
heading of "General Studies/' in which the effects of the 
physical forces of Nature are pointed out. " Australian 
Nature 'Studies " is primarily a book written by a teacher for 
teachers, hut that does not lessen its value to the ordinary 
nature-lover, who, however, must not expect to find in it a 
" text -boo lc" in the usual acceptation of the term. Dr. 
Leach's efiort has been mainly to draw attention to the methods 
of life in various groups of the animal and vegetable kingdoms. 
The chapters are written in simple, terse language, every point 
being illustrated in the line drawings, M'hich are particularly 
numerous. The colour plates are perfect representations of 
six of our prominent Australian birds^-vix., Crimson Parrot, 
Blue Wren, Golden Bower- bird. Yellow-banded Parrot, Shrike- 
Robin, and Blue-faced Pinch- The work is well indexed, but 
this is rather difficult to use, there not being sufficient difference 
between the type of figures used for text and illustrations ; 
again, the volume is paged at the bottom of the pages — an 
awkward place for a book where the index will be so much in 
use — while the uumbering of the figures is poor, la an 
appendix the author points out the value, of nature study both 
in the school and home, and for the benefit of teachers a table 
of ^ suggested topics" lias been drawn up, covering an eight 
years' course of graduated steps for children from five to 
thirteen years of age. Dr. Leach is to be congratulated on 
the completion of his great task, which, we* feel sure, will be 
appreciated by a very large number of teachers and others, 
not only in Victoria, but throughout Australia. It clears up 
a great many points on which there was no readily available 
literature, and by its simple language, and absence of technical 
terms should do a great deal in advancing the love of Nature, 
In ite many phases always around us in our daily life. 


Che Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. S. DECEMBER 7, 1922 No. -46S. 


Thb monthly meeting of tlic Club was held at the Royal 
Society's Hall on Monday evening, 13th November, 1922 

The president, Mr, C. Daley, F.L.S., occupied the chaji, and 
about sixty members and visitors were present. 

A report of the excursion to the You Yangs 011 Saturday. 
14th October, was given by the Leader, Mr. C. Daley, l X.S , 
who said that the party had a pleasant walk from Little River 
to the range. As usual, the country was somewhat dry''. The 
characteristic, shtub of the di*>U let t Prostanther a ntvea, Snowy 
Prostanthera, was almost at its best, while the perfume of 
Acacia dcmrrms k var mollis, filled the ait*. The view from 
Station Peak was almost perfect in every direction. 

A report of the excursion to Ringwood on Saturday, 21st 
October, was given by the leader, Mr. C. Oke, who said that a 
party of fourteen met at Ring wood station,. It was- decided 
to take a northerly direction, towards " Pinetnont-" Though 
planned for entomology > many of the excursionists were quite 
as interested in plants, and soon -secured trophies in the shape 
of fine spikes of Conuspermum eticunim Just before reaching 
the creek. several species of orchids were met with, among them 
being Thdyvtilra canwa> T. longifolia, and Ctdadenh-t cornea, -and 
alon^ the creek bank, amongst the undergrowth, Ckttoglottte 
Gunnii was found in fair numbers. With the exception of 
ants, insects were scarce but of these interesting liltle creatures 
several species were numerous, and some time was spent in 
examining their nests> The nests of A phanxgaster longiceps 
were very numerous, and, as the ants were mating, no difficulty 
was experienced m obtaining specimens of males, females, and 
workers, the differences between which were pointed out. A 
nest of lictati/Mma (tcicnlatnm (?) was carefully examined for 
■inqt<ihw$) and two species of Pselapida^ were obtained, as also 
specimens of a blind Rodwayei. The afternoon turned out 
warm, and several preferred to take advantage of available 
shade to searching for natural history specimens, while orchid- 
hunting claimed the attention of most of the others. Altogether, 
fifteen species were obtai ned during the afternoon , so me 
beautiful spikes of Thtiymitra ixioidcs being among those 
gathered, By carr-hd search on the ground several small beetles 
were secured, the best of which was l?yb#x{$ longipilotut, Wilson 

A leport of the excursion ro'Yarra Junction on Saturday, 
zSth October, was, given by the leader, Mr. F. G. A. Barnard, 

$8 Field Naturalists' Club— Proceedings. [voMixxix. 

who said that, favoured by a beautiful day, the members who 
went so far afield (forty miles) enjoyed the outing tborooghly, 
Many attractive flowers were seen along the railway line, while 
the colour of the gum-tips was in many instances very bni riant. 
On arrival at Yarra Junction it was decided to trailer to the 
steam train which goes to Powelltown (ir miles), but. as time 
would not permit of the whole journey, to go as far as Three 
Bridges (seven miles) and walk back to the starting place. 
This proved a vtfry good plan, as flowers of many kinds were 
plentiful. Our first find, on the bank of the Little Yarra, was 
Oxylobium eUipticum, one of our handsomest flooring shrubs, 
the flowers of which last well in watei. Its flowering season was 
nearly over, but enough remained to indicate what a tine show 
it makes when in bloom. Walking back along the tram-line, 
numerous flowering shrubs were noted, such as Graillea nlpim, 
Eriostemon corrcifolius, Baueta rnbiotdcs, PitHe-mm Mudleri, 
Billardicra scandens, Danvpicra stricta, and Zietia Smitlw, 
Presently, following the main road, a patch of Epacw impvessa 
was found to be in splendid order, with DUlmyma *r*p(faJfa 
and D. corymbose, making a brilliant show. Altogether, the 
locality should be productive of a large variety of flowering 
plants if thoroughly searched. ■ 

A report of the excursion to Frankston on Saturday,, 4th 
November, was forwarded by the leader, Mr. J. G. Mann, who 
reported a good attendance of members and an interesting 
outing. The Purple Orchid, Diuris punctata, was found in 
fair quantity near the Langwarrin station. A visit was paid 
to the Frankston golf links, where a large variety of Australian 
trees ar.d shiubs have been planted for decorative purposes, 
the majority of which are doing well. The ramble was then 
directed towards the coast south of Frankston and the beach 
road followed back to the station. 

A report of the excursion to Pakenham on Tuesday, 7th 
November (Cup Day), was forwarded by the leader, Mr, F. 
Wisewould. who reported a good attendance and a very enjoy- 
able day. Owing to the late season, flowers of many kinds 
were still numerous, and the country was looking at its bear. 
Rambles were taken in a couple of directions (rum Pakenham 
Upper, where the leader entertained the party at his country 


tin a ballot being taken, Mtss W. G. Graham, Spring-street, 
Melbourne ; Mr. E. J. Ingram, 133 Barkly-street, North Fftztoy ; 
Mr. R- T. Fatten, Botanical Department, University ; and Dr. 
S. F. Ridley, r Blyth-stveet, Brunswick, were duly elected as 
ordinary members; Miss Helen D. Elder, ({ Ivaruc-a-ruc f " 
Rokewood, and Mi. L. D. Cameron, u Coonara," 34 Prince 

ig»] J ' iM W#Waf&&? Ctub— Proceedings. 99 

Albert-road, Mosman, N.S.W., as country members; and Mr. 
Ernest H. Thiele, Vjctoiia-streef, Doueuster, as an associate 
member of the Club. Miss Graham, being present, was heartily 
welcomed, especially from the fact that she is ;i visitor from 
Canada who is staying for some time in the State. 


The president announced that since last meeting the Gub 
had lost another of its members in the person of Mr. Alexander 
Borthwick, of Longuevillc, Sydney, a country member of the 
Club, and moved that a letter of sympathy be forwarded to his 
relatives. The motion was carried in silence, all standing. 

Mr F G. A. Barnard said that a few days before he had 
received a letter from Mr. C. D'Alton, a member of the Club, 
lesiding near Hall's Gap, Grampians, calling attention 1o the 
fact that an area of land, locally known as the "Wild-Flower 
Garden/' ,was about to be thrown open for selection and urging 
that the Club slioud take action and endeavour to have the area 
permanently reserved from settlement. He moved thai repre- 
sentations be made by deputation to the Minister for Lands 
asking for the permanent reservation of the blocks in question- 
This was seconded by Mr. E. E. Pescott, F.L.S., supported by 
Mr. G. Coghill and others, and carried unanimously. 

Mr A. E, Keep asked what was the position with regard to 
the export of Australian birds, and read an advertisement 
appearing in the Sun-mysia Daily in which a dealer offers to 
buy any number of Major Mitchell Cockatoo* and Shell Parrots. 
Mr. J. A. Kershaw, F.E.S., said that as the result of the recent 
deputation to the Minister of Customs a list of birds which 
may be exported had been drawn up and submitted to various 
authorities lor approval. This would shortly be placed before 
interested societies, and if agreed to would be gazetted- Bolh 
the birds mentioned would be in the protected list. 

Mr. H. B. Williamson, F.L.S., said that considerable dis- 
appointment was being experienced by plant-lovers at the 
non-appearance* of the long-promised u List of Vernacular 
Names for Victorian Plants/* He moved — " That the 
committee of the Club be asked tn take steps to at once carry 
into effect the purpose, for which the Plant Names Committee 
was appointed — namely, to publish a ' List of Vernacular 
Names of Victorian Plants/ and to add such information, not 
descriptive, as will enable the list to be used in conjunction 
with Muellers- ' Key.' " 

This was seconded by Mr. G. Coghill, and carried unani- 


By Dr. VV. Macgillivray, entitled " A Trip to the. North and 
North- West of Broken Hill (N.S.W.) " 

joo Field Natittalhis 1 Chib—Procad\ti£&: [vJ!xxxl*x. 

The- author gave a most interesting account of a trip made 
hy motor -cat in the spring of 1021, cuvering several hundreds 
of miles, on the borders of New South Wales, yucensiand, 
and South Australia. The princtpaf birds and plants met with 
wore mentioned, and the paper created a very different im- 
pression in the minds of many of those present than had 
previously existed, for a district width had been regarded as 
almost desert was shown to be, in a favourable season, a 
veritable flower-garden, while "bird-life, particularly parrots 
and cockatoos, was abundant 

Messrs. E E. Pescott, F.L.S., H. B- Williamson, F.L.S., and 
F. G. A. Barnard expressed their appreciation of the paper 


By Mr. A. N. Burns. — A large series of butterflies, with pupa 
eases in some instances, also Hymenoptcra (wasps, ike), collected 
near Ballina., Richmond River, N.S.W , . Brisbane and Palm- 
woods, Queensland, during October, 1922. 

By Mrs. H Coleman. — Sections of roots of Native Cherry-tree, 
Exocatpos cupwssiformis, showing attachment and ioot of a 
eucalypt, ? parasitism ; orchids, Cnladcma congesta and a 
Diuris, apparently a hybrid, from Bayswater j jaws of a Port 
Jackson shark 

By Mi P. C. Morrison. — Species of recent iEchiuocardJum, 
sp.) and fossil (Lovenia) sea urchins, from Cheltenham. 

By Mr. C. Oke.- — Insects from Pakenhnm excursion, including 
a rare beetle, Myrmcchnlcva acitlifruns, Lea, from the nest nf the 
Greenhead Ant, Ectaiomma m&lallicttm. 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda. — The barbed spmc of a Stingray, fiom 
Brighton Beach. 

By Mr. A. L. Scott. — Fitchstone and associated rock, from 
Mount Ngongataka, near Rotorua, N.Z. 

By Mr, A. J- Tadgell. — Prasofihylhw fmcurn % Tawny Leek 
Orchid, from -near- Bray brook ; the colour of the plant was 
yellowish-green, as often found in South Australia (Dr. Rogers) ; 
an unusual locality for this orchid. Calndenia diUitaia, Spider 
Orchid ; colour of flower, canary yellow; an unusual colour 
for this orchid; found at Woori Yallock, November, 1922. 
Tradescantia flnminen$is, Vel., Water Spiderwort, on waste 
ground at Sandringham, October, 1922 ; first record as a garden 
escape J Ecltimn plantagi7ieum, Patterson's Curse, dwarf form, 
from Mitcham and Ringwood ; Gentium saxos<>, Mountain 
Gentian, and Br achy come atrkta, Erect Daisy, shady places 
from Croydon towards Warrandyte ; rare plants near Melbourne. 

By Mr. L. Thorn. — Larva, pupa, and imago of a large Mistle- 
toe Butterfly, Vgpfti zozinr, from One-Tree Hill (Mount Cootba), 
Brisbane, Queensland ; forty-five species of butterflies and 

wi'J AW WWlA^ft 1 Club—Pmeedings. tot 

sixty species of moths from Ballina, Richmond River, N.S-W., 
and Blackall Ranges, Queensland, October. 1922. 

By Mr. H, B, Williamson, F.I. S. — Orchid, Dinris punctutu, 
LiJac Diuris, from ■Dandenorig ; Melaleuca Wtlsoni, Bcvcken 
behrn, and Lotuloma behrii, from Nhill. AH these .flowers had 
kept fresh in water for a fortnight. 

By Mr F. F-. Wilson, — Tiger Beetles Mega~cphnki. nu5lntlis i 
Chand., from Pink Lakes, North-West Victoria. 

After the nsual conversazione the meeting terminated. 


If will come as a great shock to a great many members of die 
liAd Naturalists' Club to learn that one of the "fathers" of 
the Club, and one of its best-known members, Mr, Joseph 
Gabriel, altered his Jong rest on 24th November at the ripe aye 
*>f 75 years. He had riot been himself for the past twelve 
months, but only his intimate friends were aware of the ■ 
seriousness of his illness. He was almost a foundation member 
of the Club, having been elected in July, 1883. He became 
associated with the committee, in July, i8y5, and for more than 
twenty-five years held office, being on litany occasions elected 
at the head of the poll, thus showing the- esteem in which he 
was held by the members. During his presidentship, 1920-21, 
the Club celebrated its Coriidh anniversary. He took- part iu 
two of the memorable trips of the Club to the islands of B^ss 
Strait, made about thirty years ago — viz., the Kent Group 
in November, 1890', and the Furneaux Group in November, 
1S93 ; and, loving the sea and its surrounding^, he made a 
further trip to Albatross Island, a tiny speck in the ocean off 
the north west point of Tasmania, in company with the late 
Mr. H. P. C. Ashworth, in October, 1895 (Vict. Nat, April, 
JS96, xiii v p. 3). He was a pharmaceutical chemist by pro- 
fession, but his hobbies were many. He was an excellent 
cabinetmaker and constructed much of his own furniture, 
cabinets for specimens, &c. s besides building a small yacht at 
his Own horn*. His natural history tastes were also roanv. 
He was a good ornithologist, and had a fine collection of eggs, 
His love for the sea led him to take up dredging for seaweeds 
and polyxoa, especially in Western Port Bay, the waters of 
which 'became his play -ground for many years, and of which 
lit knew every inch, The shells incidentally obtained, during 
these trips lie handed ovw id his son, Mr, Charles J. Gabriel, 
also a w^llknown member of the Club, who in couise of lime 
became a recognized authority on the marine concliology of 
Victoria, and whose collection of the shells of the woild is very 


tOz The lale Mr. Joseph Cutset. [v^ltxxi'x. 

extensive, in a gi'cat measure the result of exchanges made for 
shells dredged by his father in Western Port- Mr. GabrieJ 
contributed several paper* to tlrt Club's proceedings, more 
especially regarding the nesting and life, of the Mutton-birds 
at Phillip, Island. In his more active days he acted as leader 
of several dredging excursions in Hobson's Bay, and was ever 
willing to give advice on that and kindred subjects to inquiring 
enthusiasts — In fact, he was one of those men who never could 
do enough to help his fellow-men, no matter what the help 
sought. When, during the war period, the Club entered into 
the project of larger wild-flower exhibitions, he was always to 
the fore in planning details and seeing that tables, &c., were 
ready long before other helpers arrived at. the ball, To him 
the Club }S indebted for the actual making -of tables, &c. his 
latest donation in that way being the reading stand used at 
the monthly meetings In (act, he was so generous With his 
time and talents that it almost became a stereotyped phrase — 
," Oh- leave it to Gabriel j he will fix it up! "* His attendance 
was most regular at the monthly meetings of the Club, and he 
was, at the time of Ins death, a member of the committee. To 
his widow and family is extended the whole-hearted sympathy 
of the members of thQ Club in their loss, which, it will be seen 
from these notes,, is no light one. His remains were borne tx> 
their last resting-place in the Boroondara Cemetery, Kew, on 
Monday morning, the 27th ult.. in the presence of a repre- 
sentative gathering of fellow-members and friends, 

The. Late Mr, A. BonrnwiCK. — It is with regret we record 
the death of Mi- Alexander Borthwick, of Longucville, Sydney, 
who was elected a membej of the Club m May, 1917. Mr. Borth- 
wick was an old Victorian, who had removed to Sydney for 
business reasons. He had been a member of ]the Club 311 its 
earlier years, when he was a keen ornithologist. Latterly we 
believe he had been taking some interest in fell and kindred 
forms of life. 

Exhibition oi r Wild-Flowers. — It is expected that the 
Children's Hospital will receive nearly £75 as its share of the 
net proceeds of the recent exhibition of wild-flowers. In con- 
nection with the report of the exhibition in the last. Nainralisl, 
the names of Mr C, Ftv-nch, jun., and Mr/ E. E Pescott, KL.S., 
were inadvertently omitted when giving credit to the con- 
tributors In the orchid table. 

Personal,— Members will be pleased to leam thai a fellow- 
member, Mr. C. L. Phimridgc, has been appointed Curator of 
the Park* and Reserves of the C'ty of Kcw. 

5&] Coi.kman, j>olM Autumn Qythuts* ioj 


Bv (Mrs.) E. -Coikman. 

{Read bcjorc the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, iith Sept,, igil.) 

" Autumn U here — bke Spring returned to us.. 
Won from her giflifiUness;" — Browning, 

Sukely there is no more fascinating- hobby than the study of 
orchids, arid there arc two delightful ways of pursuing it : 
where expense is no object one may tread the primrose path 
by means of glass houses ; but to know the real charm of 
orchid-collecting one must be a lover of the open and walk the 
forest ways in search of them. % ' 

With me the love of these shy blooms h not an isolated 
attachment. It is closely associated with the songs of birds. 
the scent of heath, blue hills, cooJ gullies,- and the whip-bird's 
call, and the many other delights winch each season brings. 

To the true lover of orchids there is no " orchid season. " 
To liim it is ever "the time* of tender opening things/* and, 
though his now are small and insignificant in comparison 
with ones to be found later, 

M When the fields catch flower, 
And the underwood ts green," 

they are not less beautiful in his eyes. He smiles when he 
hears the " off season " mentioned, for that is the time when 
hi> hope is highest. He continues his rambles through autumn 
and winter, climbing hills and searching gullies in the surt^ 
expectation that he will one day find an orchid new to him — 
perhaps new to science ! This is the one thing he would add 
to Hazlitt's sum -of a perfect day. Who would grudge him his 
moment of exultation ? And is there any finer time for 
walking than the autumn, when Nature speaks to us of so many 
remcmberablc things ? We may walk the forest ways for 
many days without capturing out blue bird : but we shall surdy 
garner a little of Nature's gold by the wayside. 

It is surprising how soon one acquires m the "orchid eye," 
and one needs it now, for many of our autumn forms are so 
small as to escape the. notice of all but ardent seekers. In 
colouring, too, they arc very subdued, in strong contrast with 
the u flaunting flowers our gardens yield " at- this time of tlm 
year ; but, seen under the magnifying glass, their beauty would 
convert the most indifferent observer into an enthusiast. Let 
US, Mien, set out "on our autumn rambles, hugging a great 

Although oichids bloom mote strictly hi accordance with 
Nature's time-table than many wild-flowers, let us ignore her 
calendar and agree, as Wilde said when asked his advice con- 

104 CousMan. Some Autumn Orchids. [voiI'xxxVx. 

eeniing the airangernent of some Japanese fans, that "tfwjgt 
should not be arranged, they should occur." Having decided 
to commence our autumn season when we will, our "-firstlhr 
o' the year * : shall be the sweetly-scented Eriochilm autnmnalh, 
This is to be found on almost any uncultivated lands. This 
was the first bright orchid we had seen for sonic time, and it 
was cheering to meet again a member of the more conspicuous 
families. Commencing as early as the middle of February, 
its season extended into the middle of June. April, however, 
was its best month, and we found it then in large numbers, 
pushing its way through the driest and most formidable-looking 
soil "as effortless as woodland nooks send violets up and paint 
them blue." 'At the time of flowering the leaf of this little 
orchid is a mere sheathing bract at the of the flnwer-st<»m. 
It gradually matures, and in less than three months is similar 
in size and shape to the full-grown leaf of Coladcn-m McnzicMi. 
Sometimes the withered fiowct may still be attached to the 
root to help in identification, but usually it has died off, and 
one is rather puxxled by these leaves, especially as they jtffi 
frequently to be foupd in pairs, suggesting an orchid of the 
twin-leaved series. 

The month of May brought its one-time sister, Lcptoccras 
pmhnaia, with its fringed Iabcllum. horn-like petals, and 
autumu shades of green, yellow, and reddish -brown. The 
leaf, green above with red veinings, is reddish below, and, like 
that of IzHothilus autumnalis; t it, too, matures after flowering 
time. We frequently 'found this plant with two fully- grown 
leaves, though in those cases there were no flowers. In no 
instance did vc find two leaves when the flower was present 

The 'beginning of March saw our first prizes of the tiny 
Prasophyllum family. These call for unlimited devotion and 
patience in identifying. To the unseeing eye they are small 
and insignificant. Certainly "radiance and odour" a»c not 
their dower : but under the magnifying glass they are among 
the glories of the orchid world. With us at Blackburn P. 
A rcheri com^s first, followed soon by P. fimbriutum and more 
rarely by P infneatum, The labcJJa of these three ate aII 
more or less fringed, and tremble prettily in the sunshine, In 
the first two the dorsal sepal and lateral petals arc also ciliated. 
Roughly, we may look for tiny reddish-brown flowers, though 
they vary considerably in colour, from yellowish-reddish (to 
quote Baron von Mueller) to dull or dark red or reddish-purple. 

1 might icrnark here that some people have such ba filing 
ideas of colour that J am forced to the conclusion that people 
may actually see colour differently. We found many of \ these 
small orchids all through March and April, and a few " last 
roses " were noted at the end of May. 


^£;*] Coleman, Some Autumn Orchids, igj 

Muidi also brought two other tiny memheis of litis family 
— P. dcspsclans and P. brackysiachyttm. The petals and sepals 
of these are not fringed, and each has n long, narrow labellum, 
which also is not fringed. Thus, though ihey are quite easily 
confused with each other, they art readily distinguished from 
the former group, The labeJlum of P. dcypcUcns, huwevci, is 
pointed, and the appendages to its column are falcate, while 
the labellum of P. brachysUuhyvm is blunt and tlie appendages 
of the column 'distinctly bifid. On a stem from three to nine 
inches high these carry as many as twenty-five- reddish-green 
flowers, all crowded within the space of an inch at the top, 
Some othei species, Dixoni, fusco-v\rul&, nigricans, cittatnm, 
and rttfitm, we missed this season. 

We now come to the Pterostylis family. P. parm/fora is one 
of the smallest of the Greenhoods. Being only a few inches 
high, it is not easiiy seeu J and one. is amazed to hud the " tiny 
horns of miraculous green " pushing up through the driest and 
poorest soil, though the better class land produces more robust 
specimens The basal leaves are sometimes present at 
flowering time. We did not find blooms until early in April, 
though flower-slalks were showing by the middle of March. 
There arc two quite distinct varieties of this species. The 
earlier and more robust form carries as many as ten flowers, and 
is quite frequently more red than green. It has fruited by the 
time the later variety i$ well established- This is smaller, 
has only one two, or three flowers usually, and is consistently 
all green, 

Some of the most graceful of the Greenhoods occur during 
the months of April, May, and June, and we now come to a 
group having stem leaves only at the. time- of flowering. ' By 
the beginning of March at Ferntree Gully we found P. obhtsa 
on the stony hillsides it loves, and it lingered until 16th June. 
May brought the somewhat similar P. pra>cox, and June its robust 
brother, P pr&cox, var. rabmta. Though P obtuse and P. 
preecox are outwardly similar, one notes at once the blunt 
labellum ot P- obtitea and the sharp-pointed one of P. pr&cvx. 
Then we notice that the lower sepals of P. obtusa, before 
elongating into its characteristic " points;' protrude in a 
decided "nose." The striae of P. pr&cvx arc very clearly 
defined, and vary from dark green to grey, and often red. 

April brought specimens of P. reficxa from Maldon. I have 
not found this near Melbourne, and should be interested to learn 
of anyone having done >o. Broadly, it is a larger edition of 
P. pYiVCOX with the M beaky fi hood of P. oblwta, and it, too r 
possesses a " sharp tongue." Its close relation, P. rcvolnlti t 
another autumn prize, was found at Ashburfcon in May This 
may bo said to be a sturdy copy of P. falcata, It has a long, 

lo6 • Coleman, Soma Autumn Orchid/:. [vd!*xxxVx. 

narrow, strap-like labcllum, without the point of P. wflcxa, 
and its (lowers are considerably larger. Tho beautiful P, 
xrmui flora, with its club-pointed lahellum, did nut fall to our 
lot this season, but we were compensated frh this by finding 
the rather rare P. vituita at Black Rock in May, although the 
bloom* were pour by comparison with specimens received 
from Point Lonsdale. Like P. kmgifolut, this orchid has only 
stem leaves at the time ol flowering. The colonic oi its flowers 
varies from gTey-green, purplish-green, to vivid red, and, as an 
instance of how little the colour of an orchid may iometimes 
count in determining the spneies, 1 may mention that some 
all-yellow flowers and one all-green specimen were found this 
season The extremely sensitive label him was chloroformed 
into submission to the photographer's art. 

The month of May brought buds of P, longifolia, though this 
is one of our late winter and early spring treasures. This month. 
too, came two small members of the Ptcrostyhs family which 
have basal rosettes of small leaves at the time of flowering. 
There is no mistaking the bifid tongue of P concinna. By the 
middle of June this was numerous in many places. A few 
blooms of P. pL-dalogl-O'sSii were found at Black Rock in April, 
and later we noled many more. This quaint little oichid, with 
its tailed sepals, has a short, blunt labcllum. Leaves and buds 
of P curia and P. nultins appeared by the middle uf May, and 
fine blooms of the latter were gathered at Mount Eliza on 10th 
June. However, one swallow does not make a summer, and 
this orchid best loves the month of August In May also the 
neat rosettes of P,J>arhala were numerous at Ringwood and 
Saudringham, though we must wait until late August and 
early September for blooms of this (( Greenbeard ° As early 
as April we rioted many well-advanced leaves of Cryptostylis 
longifolia, one of our hot-weather beauties, and dining May 
we saw hundreds of fine leaves of Ly-p^ant-hns nigricans. We 
are chary of counting the chickens of this orchid, is we have so 
frequently been very disappointed in the small number of 
blooms seen among large areas of leaves, and have ^atbired 
some really fine blooms where we found only isolated leaves. 
Leaves and buds of P. nana were also found this month, 

Those who love the country should spend some time in 
Healcsville during the autumn. The waysides are then famous 
for the rvasset and golden tints of the brambles, and one follows 
with keenest delight the colour gradation', when the pnplats 
stand like golden spire? in their green beds, the willow "trails 
its amber/' and. the winds — for which, alas I Hcalesvillc is AbV> 
famous— arc for a time stilled. Then 

5' O'er my windless soft wcdUht 
ilic ptvice that passes unflfWanding broods,' 1 * 

*JSy] CoUiMAN, Some Autumn Orchids. t<i/ 

In addition to these pleasures, each week is certain to bring 
grist to the mill of the orchid-lover. 

la April we found many leaves and buds of AUantfyus 
£xs£rluH, and they were blooming freely early in May. We may 
expect to find blooms of tins until the close of July. Several 
alhgreen forms were collected. — even the under side cf the leal 
being green — another instance of many colour vagaries. 

The third week in April brought a delightful member of the 
twin-leaved group— C/n/og/oWt's dyphylla, the Autumn Bird- 
Orchid. Its nch claret and green-coloured flowers are not 
quite so bird-like as those of its hot- weather relations, 6*. Gunnii 
and C. MueMeri ; but it is a really beautiful little orchid, and 
its development from bud to fully-opened flower is full of 
surprises. It loves the cool mountainous districts, where it is 
at its best during the month oJ May and early pait of June, 
At a Canterbury flower show, held on the 6th September last 
year, we exhibited a plant which had been blooming for five 
weeks. This orchid I find to be a shy bloomer in Healesvilte. 
In quite large patches of leaves one may- only find one bloom 
— rarely more I conclude, therefore, that it multiplies below 
ground rather than by means of seed. 

In carl}' April wc found leaves and buds of One of the 
quaintest of the helmet orchids — Corysanlhcs bicalcarata — and 
by June they were quite numerous among decayed leaves and 
twigs. They look like a host of reddish-grey slugs, each resting 
on its single gieen leaf, which is red on the under side. The 
hollow spurs are its most salient feature. 

The end of May brought buds of Corysanthes wngmculata in 
similar situations. These will be numerous all through July, 
and those flowers which, with the shelter Nature provides in 
the shape of fallen logs, den^e undergrowth, &c M escape the 
frosts of July will last until the middle of August. The leaf 
of this small orchid is also reddish on the under side, and its 
embryo spurs arc plainly visible. Fine' blooms of C\ fimbnata 
were found at Mount Eliza on roth June, but Healesvilte 
flowers are considerably later. The red and white flowers of this 
species are almost transparent, and its labeliura is deeply 
fimbriated. Its leaf is grey*grcen on the under side, not red, 
as in C- bicalcartdu and C. unguicidnta. 

Buds of C. prumosa are showing now. The flowers of this 
ate red all over, not streaked, as in C- fimbriala. The hood 
is smaller and more erect, besides being transparent- The 
flowe* -stew is shorter — indeed, the flower rests on the leaf. 
The labeUurn is only slightly fimbriated, and its edge is curled 
an, forming a cup. August is its best month, but it wilt last 
until the hot winds diy its delicate flowers. Our Healesville 
specimens do not, however, wholly conform to all the characters 

3o8 Coi.ima.N, Some- Autumn Orchids. [voi^xxxiK- 

accepted by some botanists as pertaining to P. ftymnosct. 
Though T have frequently seen seeded flowers of Coiysanthes, 
in some instances on stalks which have grown k> eight or run£ 
baches, these are few in comparison with the numerous cases 
hi which "the flower dies and remains a mere blob on the leaf. 
As in the ease oi Chiloglottis dyphylla, this points to a method 
of reproduction by the increase of tubers rather than with the 
aid of seed. 

Tins virtually completes a rather elastic list of -autumn 
orchids, for 1 have included buds of some winter and spring 
Species.- There are some which I have not collected — among 
them a few which appear to he ve^* local. There are doubtless 
also new species to locate. 1 should be unhappy to know there 
.vcre not, for, after all, " to travel hopefully is a better thing 
than to arrive." By July our winter orchids are with us, 
coming not as single spies but in battalions. Indeed, wc have 
onty travelled a little way along the orchid road. Perhaps 
you are disappointed — the flowers may not be so brilliant as 
you expected ; but do not be discouraged in your search. Wait 
until winter creeps iZ aged from the earth/' and spring's first 
breath Mows "soft from the moist hills," and you shall find 
others quite as beautiful as the curled darlings of a suburban 

Australian Aboriginal Tolk Lore.— The vast shoals of 
rnultet which swarm, northerly, up the east coast of Australia in 
the autumn and winter as if in Search oi warmer waters, aud 
pour into every bay and rivev as well, are welt known. Strange 
to say, the aboriginals found out centuries ago that many weeks 
bcfoie a real good mullet season, in June, the Blue Mountain 
Parrot r in March, is also unusually plentiful This parrot has- 
about as much apparent connection with the mullet fish as 
Tentcrden Steeple has with the Goodwin Sands. Yet the omen 
never fails, for scanty parrots are followed inevitably by scarce 
fish ; similarly the Blade Magpie, Crow-Shrike, or the Butcher- 
bird is the sign for the blackfish ; if no " ehurwung," then no 
"dimgala" 1 — if plentiful the one, then plentiful the other. If 
the tailor fish is to be in full supply, then the wattle tree must 
be in extra full bloom beforehand ; if the blossoms be scanty, this 
fish will be conspicuous by its absence for that season. Th& 
Crow-Shrike in ,Maj' heralds the bream in June. These rules are 
rigid, hard and fast, and for seven years at a stretch, some- 
times, the absence of the one fully guarantees the absence of 
the other. And, hey! presto t the nexc season gives us a return 
of both, in plenty, but always concurrent, and never divorced. 
- -From " Opals and Agates," try K. Bartlcy, 1892. . 

Che Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 9. JANUARY 11. 1923. No. 469. 


The monthly meeting of the Guh was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on Monday evening, nth Decerfbcr, 10,22. 

The president, Mr, C, Daley, B.A., F L.5., occupies] tru?. chair, 
and about sixty members and visitors were present. 

The chairman referred to the death, since last meeting, of 
Mr. Joseph Gabrieh one of the oldest ' members of the Club, 
and one who always had tbe interest of the Club at heart. . 
He endorsed the words of the notice in the current Naturalist 
regarding Mr. Gabriel, and moved a motion of sympathy with 
his relatives, which was carried in silence, all standing. 

Mr. G. Cughill moved — n That a minute recording the late 
Mr. Gabriel's services to the Club be drawn up and inserted in 
the minutes of the meeting," The motion was seconded by 
Miss Bage, supported by Messrs. J. L. Robertson. F. Pitcher, 
J H. Harvey, and G A, Heartland, and carried unanimously. 

[The following minute has been drawn up and inserted in 
the minutes of the meeting ; — " That tins meeting of members 
of the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria desire to place on 
record its appreciation of the many valuable services rendered, 
both as an office-bearer and an ordinary member, by the late 
Mr. Joseph Gabiiel during his Jong membership of the Club, is 
which he exhibited an unselfish interest in its work and a deep 
love of natural history.' 1 ] 


From Miss Gabriel, expressing the thanks of her mother 
and family for the letter of sympathy in their bereavement 
forwarded by the committee at its last meeting. 


A report of the excursion to Nar Nar Goon on Saturday, 18th 
November, was forwarded by the leader, Mr. J. W. Audas, 
F.L.S., who reported that, owing to the favourable weather, 
flower* were fairly abundant some eighty species being noted 
in bloom, many of them in considerable quantities. In places 
Ban era rubioides and Damfiiera sbticla and Lobelia %xbbosa made 
pleasing contrasts of colour. The simple white flowers of Woolly 
Tea-tree, Lcpiosperwutn kinifywum, were much admired, a-nri 
many other shrubs added to the blaxo of colour, 

A report of the excursion for pond-life on Saturday, 25th 
November, was giveh by the leader, Mr. J. Si.icldaud, who said 
that, owing to the ponds in the FiUroy Gardens not being m 

no Field Natwatuts* Club— Proceedings. [vwfxxxi'x. 

good condition, the locality of the excursion had been altered 
to the Botanical Gardens, with excellent results- The members, 
who were joined hy several members of the Microscopical 
Society, were fortunate in finding a number of uncommon and 
interesting forms in the material collected. Several specimens 
-of a Hydrozoon, Cordilophera, sp., were among the captures 
This genus, unlike its near relative, the common Hydra, occurs 
in colonies instead of being solitary, and differs mainly in having 
more numerous tentacles irregularly distributed over the whole 
body in. place of being arranged in a circle around the hypa- 
stome. A beautiful representative of the Helioxoa, Clathruhna 
clcgans, was found, in unusually good condition and in great 
numbers. The Porifera was represented by a fresh- water 
sponge, probably a species of Spongilla, and the Polyzoa by a. 
Plumatella. Many species of Protozoa and Rotifera, with 
several algar, were also noted 

A report of the excursion to Pan ton's Gap, via Healcsvitle, 
Gn Saturday, 2nd December, was given by the leader, Mr. F 
Pitcher, who said that the party drove out on the Don road 
for about four miles and then ascended the range to Malieson's 
Look-out, h climb of nearly 2,000 feet. From this position 
one of the finest panoramas near Melbourne is laid out before 
the tourist The roccd w&s then followed to the top of the range, 
where a sign indicated the turn off to Ben Cairn and Donna 
Buang. This track- was followed for about a mile and a half, 
i>ut, seeing no indication of the promised fern gullies at the 
head of the Don River, the members returned hy the way they 
had come and took the track to the Badger or Coranderrk Weir, 
Here they found a delightful mass of greenery, consisting of 
tree-ferns and shrubs of many kinds, though containing nothing 
of special rarity During the day many wild-flowers, especially 
of blue and purple hues, were noted. Though the day turned 
out somewhat* warm, none regretted the time spent amid the 
tree-covered lulls of the district. 


On a ballot being taken, Miss M. Gwen Evans, Y.WC.A. 
Rooms, Russell-street, Melbourne, and MissE. Hart, " Fassifern," 
Barkly-street, St. Kilda, were duly elected members of the 


The chairman said it was necessary to elect somo member 
to hi I The place of the late Mr. J. Gabriel on the; committee. 
He desired, as a compliment to their late member, to nominate 
his son, Mr. Charles J. Gabriel, who, he hoped, would accept 
the position, for the vacancy. This was seconded by Mr. 
F G. A. Barnard, and carried unanimously. 

*JJjj W**4 Naturalists' Club— Proceedings, m 

The hon. treasurer. Mr. F. Pitcher, read a statement of 
accounts of the recent exhibition of wdd-flowcrs, which showed 
a credit balance of £152. Half of this ({76) had, m accordance 
with the previous determination, been forwarded to the 
Children's Hospital as a donation to its funds. He read an 
acknowledgment of th« donation from the hospital, and an 
invitation to nominate three persons as life-members of the 
hospital in recognition of the Club's effort. It was resolved 
that the names of Messrs. C, Daley, F. Pitcher, and 1\ G. A 
Barnard be submitted for life-membership. 

The chairman expressed the pleasure of the members at 
seeing their fellow-member, Mr. G. A. Keartland, among them 
again after a long and serious illness. Mr Keartland, in 
thanking the meeting for its good wishes, spoke of the comrade- 
ship -He had found among the members, and specially referred 
to the good-hftai'teduess of the late Mr, Gabriel. 


1. By Mr. A. D. Hardy, F.R.MS., entitled H Notes on the 
Measurement of Trees." 

The author said that hi? paper had been prompted by a 
letter from an American correspondent, who asked his opinion 
regarding certain heights of eucalypts quoted in a recent 
American publication. He had to confess that many of the 
heights announced years ago for our tallest eucalypts were 
doubtful, owing to the fact that the method of measurement 
was not given in conjunction with the record- He contended 
that the theodolite and steel tape was the surest plan, and, 
by means of blackboard drawings, pointed out. the. numeious 
pitfalls which occur when attempting to measure the height 
of trees in ran^y country, where- it is often quite impossible 
to get a proper "sight" of the r.rec no be measured, and, as 
the tellest trees are generally found in steep gullies, errors in 
determination are difficult to guard against, 

2. By Dr. G- M'Callum, entitled "Common Salt: its Manu- 
facture and Relation to Animal Life." 

The author, in an exhaustive paper, dealt first of all with the 
many references to salt and its uses in literature from the earliest 
times, and then gave a description of the process of manufacture 
from sea-water at the Cheetham salt works, near Geelong, 
where, contrary to the usual idea that the salt is produced by 
simple evaporation, it was shown that the production of salt 
from sea-water is a long process, during which it goes through 
several stages, the nature of which are at present somewhat 
difficult to- explain scientifically. At one stage the Brine 

j jt F\fild Naturalists' Club— Proceedings: [v^Ixxx ix 

Shrimp, Pararfcemta, appears in countless numbers in Ihft pajtly 
concentrated liquor, and seems in some way to influence the 
success of the process. 

Some discussion followed, in which Messrs. P. C, Morrison, 
A D. Hardy, F. Chapman, G. A. Keartland, J. L. Robertson, 
and F. G. A. Barnard tool; part, the general opinion being that 
an investigation of the process from a bacteriological point of 
view is desirable. 


By Mr. C. L. Barrett, C.M.Z.S. — Photograph of a young 
Major Mitchell Cockatoo, Cacatua leadbeateri. This bird has 
recently been added to the list of birds protected for the whole 
year in Victoria. 

By Mr F. Pitcher. — Flowering branches of Cotton-bush. 
Casnnui aculcala, with distinctively bright pink flowers, and 
fruiting twigs of Native Cherry, Exocarfius cupressiformis, 
collected on Pan ton's Gap excursion. 

• By Mr. C. Oke. — Pair of Legless Lizards, Delma Fraseri 
(alive), from Natya, in the Northern Mallee, Victoria. 

By Mr. A. E. Roddo. — Photographs of several Victorian snakes ; 
shells of edible oysters found aiive in Port Phillip Bay, off 

By Mr, A. L. Scott. — Foliated schist, from Skipper's Gorge, 
near Qucenstown, South Island, New Zealand. 

By Mr. L. Thome, — Larvae, pups, and perfect insects of a 
common Victorian moth.. Anthcla meothec ; 'also empty pupa 
case and periect insect of Papilio macleay anus— the pupa was 
taken during the Toolangi excursion on 15th April last, and 
emerged on -27th Novemoer. 

By Mr. H. B. Williamson.. F.L.S. — Dried specimen of Tlr.ii- 
ckrysum Gatcsii, Wmson., described in Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict., 
xxxv. (n.s.), part 1, Dec, 1922, collected by Rev. A. C. F 
Gates, M.A., at Lome, Dec, 1921. This plant is fairly common, 
and must have been collected before, but confused with other 
species. Also a number of species of the genus Pulten&a, 
described in the same publication. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 

Corrections, — In Deeembei Nnfyralisf., page 07, in repoit 
of Ringwood excursion, line 7, for " Conor, per vmnr >J road 
" Comes fierwnm" : and on page 98, line 20, for u D. corym- 
losa" read "Z). flonhunda." 


Ten* members and friends put in an appeaiance rm the Frankston 
train cm Saturday, the 4th November, but, instead of dis- 
embarking at Frankston, they proceeded, by arrangement, to 
the Langwartin siding from which to begin the day's walk. 
Almost immediately, and within the railway enclosure, a 
prolific crop ol the orchid Brnris fimchihi was discovered, and 
some very fine specimens collected. Through well wooded, 
park-like paddocks, in which Eucalyptus cine-rat, var. Mulli- 
flora, £, amygdalitis t E. Qvata, and E. viimnalis were about 
equally distributed, the route led as to tbe Frankston. Golf 
Clubs property Although all the acawas were finishe-d 
flowering — except the Black Wattle, A, dectmens, var mollis, 
the scent from which greeted us everywhere — the undergrowth 
was very bright with L^ptospermurn, Ricmocarpus, Oavi&sia 
UitijoUd. Hibbcrtia (of which were seen the varieties stncta r 
aticuianx, fa$a.culala r and densifiura)^ Dillwyma flor-tbunda i 
D. ctnerasuns, and D. normalis. The committee of the golf 
club, entrusted with the beautificatlon of the course, has 
restiicted its operations entirely to Australian flora, and some- 
thousands of trees and shrubs from all parts of Australia have 
been raised from seed and planted out upon the links. Of 
eiicalypts we saw some fine young growths of the following : — 
Robusta, alpina, bolryoides, diveywolor, dwes, catopkyHa- t 
tettagona, lelraptcm, Risdoni, megacarpa, fastigata, globulus, 
var. St. John, stdtroxylon, lortfuata, macrocajpa, and others, 
Some young Murray Pines, CaUitris robusta, made a fine 
contrast in colour with a row of Acacia podalyri&folin, and a 
few well-grown young Casuanna FmseHtma and C. Hucgcliu 
added to the variety. Luncheon was partaken of in a shady 
part of the course, where a bush of Gcraldton Wax-flower, 
Cham&limcwmi vncinal-um, "was in good bloom. After refresh- 
ment a walk of a. mile — the ladies said a very long mile ! — 
through heathy count' y and sandy uses brought us to the 
Sweetwater Creek, near which, in the damp ground, a great 
number of blue Utricularia, PHtersortias, Diautdl^s, Thystinotux 
tuberosus, PolyporapTiolyx. and Styhdnnn gramvmjotium were 
discovered- Uere, too, there was much bird-life. The Giey 
Harmonious Thrush. White-eared Honey-cater, Rufous-breasted 
Whistler, Yellow- breasted Whistler, Pallid and Fantail Cuckoos, 
Wood-Swallow, Pardalotes, Black-faced Cuckoo-Shfike, Magpies, 
and Magpie-Larks were all in evidence. A little further up 
the creek we came to the large new waterworks for the 
Mornmgtnri Peninsula. This is a fine sheet of water, created by 
a. large dam and earthworks, and supplied by pipe* from the 
creek above Beacutislield, forty miles away, lu some places 
it must be nearly 100 feet deep The necessary excavation* 
and quarrying that, have been carried on here have revealed 

•■ r4 F.Xi.itr.Uan to Fvanhsion. [vm^xxxIx. 

some curious geological formations, in which members Df our 
party were much interested- From this reservoir we then 
turned westerly for three miles through moie undulating heath 
count! y, with extensive views over the Bay in front of us. and 
the intervening country to the Dandenong Ranges behind us, 
until we came out on the Frankston Heights, at the foot of 
Oliver's Hill.— J. G. Mann. 


WtTH the leader, who was at Pakenham Uppe*, Cup Day (7th 
November, 1922) broke M'ith squalls of wind and drifting rain 
so heavy that it seemed doubtful whether any members would 
venture to leave Melbourne <o fulfil their promises to take 
part in the excursion. However, by the time the train arrived 
(9.15 am.) the weather had cleared, and a do2en members 
utet on the platform to greet their host for the day. Vehicles 
had been provided to cover part of the way to the leader's 
cottage, which was to be the headquarters for the day. After 
crossing the old Gippstand road, now known as the Prince's 
Highway, a hne specimen of Loranthus pend-uttis, fully ten Jeet 
in length, was seen growing on a peppermint gum near the 
roadside. Fnrther on fine bushes of Daviesia latifolta in full 
bloom were seen, also qi;antiues of Mflnteuw squayrosa and 
M evici folia were passed. The Common Broom Tea-tree, 
Lepiospcrntnm scoparrmti, was present everywhere, and its pure 
white blossouns formed a pleasant contrast with the gayer flowers 
provided by the thick undergrowth of shrubs and herbaceous 
plants. On nearing (he Deep Creek, about three miles from 
the station, Bell Minahs were both seen and heaid in the valley, 
where a small swrmnp was situated At Deep Creek fine speci- 
mens of the Native Cherry, Exocarpos cup-yessifomris, in full 
fruit were seen, and in the bed and banks of the creek were many 
Hue specimens of Olearia, besides numerous ferns. Here, also, 
along the creek banks and vaDey were many fine specimens of 
Mountain Ash, Eucalyptus regnans, towering a hundred feet or 
more above us. At the spot where the party left the vehicles 
to walk up the last hill to a further allitude of about 400 feet 
the roadside provided many fine shrubs of F'ultent?(i M-ahra 
and P. Gunnii, as well as beautiful plants of Dumpiera siricta, 
the colour and size of which were perfection, some of them 
being between two and three feet high ; the season having been 
so coot had favoured a snore luxuriant growth than usual, 
while the colouring of the young gum-tops provoked considerable 
attention. Having reached the cottage, a cup of tea and a scone 
were partaken of, and a start made for a further walk while the 
weather, which tvas then favourable, kept fine. We waJked 
over the bill towards Nar Nar Goon tor about two miles, and 

&5 I [excursion to Pahcnkcwt. 11$ 

on the way the beautiful star-like flowers of Clematis aristata 
were gatheied, also a number of showy orchids, including 
Caladenia Patcrsom, C. dilataia. C. carnca, Gloasodia m&}Qf t 
Diuns sulphured, Thclymitra (three sps.), tha Flying Duck, 
Caleawi major, and two species of Caiochilus. About half -past 
one a return was made for lunch at the cottage, and, after a 
short pesfci a further stroll through a rough paddock, past a 
deep fern gully, in the hope of seeing kangaroos or wallabies, 
which frequent this part, was taken, but in this the party was 
disappointed, and a return ma33e for an early tea. Many 
more flowers were seen in the afternoon, and several of the. 
party secured rooted specimens of native plants for growing 
in their gardens. Our secretary was very energetic in collecting 
beetles, and secured one or two rare specimens, regarding which 
he may have something further to say. No rain fell dining the 
day, and the- excursion appeared to the leader to be an un- 
qualified success. The view from the hill above the cottage 
being unique, and, though ihr. weather was dull, was wonder - 
lolly extensive, and greatly admired. — F. Wisewooid. 

The Late Mr. Jame? R Tovey. — It is with regret that wc 
record the passing of another" member of the Field Naturalists' 
Club in the person of Mr, J. R. Tovey, chief assistant at the 
National Herbarium, South* Yarra. He was elected a membej 
of the Club in August. 1907, and. contributed several papers on 
botanical subjects to its proceedings. He also acted as hon. 
secretary during (he year rgi3-i^. His life was devoted to 
botany. Entering the State service at the age of sixteen, he 
was appointed as a junior at the Herbarium under the late 
Baron von Mueller, Government Botanist. Here he applied 
himself assiduously to his duties, and at the time of 3ns death, 
after thirty-three years' service, had a very complete knowledge 
ol Australian plantb, and, infant, of those of the whole world, as 
represented at the Hcrbauum In 1907 he collaborated with 
Prof. A. J. Ewart, late Government Botanist, m the production 
of a work on the weeds, poisonous plants, and naturalized alien 
piants of Victoria. He also contributed several papers to the 
Proceedings o( the Royal Society of Victoria. For many years 
lie had been paralyzed, hut his brain remained clear, and he 
preferred to work to the lasr, being wheeled in his chair to ttis 
duties every day by his daughter, who helped him in every 
Way. He practically died in harness on the 30th of December, 
and on New Year's morning was laid to Test in the Cheltenham 
Cemetery, winch is situated amidst a tract of heath iaaid he 
had often wandered over in searching fpr specimens, and where, 
some years before, he liad watched for several seasons an 
orchid which was eventually named by Piofeseor Ewart as 
Pterozlyhs 'foveymut, in his honour. 

i l6 Oke. A w Entomologist in the DaudcuQngx, [v^'xxxix. 


By Chas. Oke. 

[Read before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, nth Sept., 1922.3 

As so many people, fcllow-rncmbers included, have expressed 
surprise at 'my going out collecting during the wmter months, 
I have thought that a few notes on what is to be seen in the 
Dandenongs at that time of year may not he out of place. To 
most people the bush in wet weathei is a place to be avoided. 
They say everything 15 so horribly wet and depressing, the 
tracks so muddy, and the hills so slippejy, in fact everything 
:s decidedly unpleasant. 

How short-sighted is their vision t For to the person who 
lows, the hush it appears otherwise. I do not mean that even 
the most ardent bush-lover likes to be caught unprepared by 
a sudden heavy downpour of rain : but even this, if one has only 
a few miles to go, and can change into dry clothes, is not an 
itxperionce without its pleasures — pleasures that appeal to Our 
sense of sight and smell ; but if one has on a waterproof, strong 
boots, and old clothes, plenty of enjoyment can be obtained, 
Irorn a shower of rain, be it heavy or light. If it in a fine, 
misty rain, it gradually envelops everything with a thin film 
of moisture, which soon forms into large drops t and falls from 
trees and bushes. The mists seem to cling m patches to the 
hilltops and to parts of the gullies ; or, if them is a breeze 
blowing, it comes and goes in waves, Should it bn a sudden 
downpour, and you are at the top of one of the gullies, among 
the tall gums and ferns, your first feeling will be one of disgust 
ut being caught so far from home, But as you listen to the 
big drops hitting the trees round you, and forcing their way 
through the leafy canopy overhead, and fed ling with a crackling 
sound on the dried leaves, that are so thickly strewn around. 
your first feeling of and disgust gives way to one of pleasure 
and admiration. 

I have been caught in a heavy storm in the Sherbrooke GulJy, 
near the Giant Tree, and came right down the gully to the 
town, a distance of about 3I miles, in a heavy rain all the 
way. Though I did not like the 4( ducking " 1 got. this was 
more than compensated for by the sight of the ram coming 
down in large drops, gradually making everything sopping wet, 
till water came trickling down the trees and undergrowth, 
forming little streamlets, which went rushing down the slopes, 
by many a devious track, to the creek below the different 
smells of 'damp leaves, mosses, shrubs, and trees mingling 
Uogethei and forming a fragrance unknown elsewhere. Some 
uf Hip inhabitants of these gullies do not one for the rain, and 
when rain comes aftei a dry or a comparatively dry spell, 

sundry moths may be seen darting around, looking for a safe, 
diy spot to shelter in Beetles which were on the foliage soon 
disappear, but others, which habitually live in cracks- in iKtt 
ground and bitter obscure places, now come out and hide under 
stones, sticks, o/c, on the ground, and are mote easily caugM- 
Snails, slugs, planarians, and land-leeches soon become more 
active and evident as the vegetation and ground become 
thoroughly wot Should the rain continue, and everything 
become very wet. numerous Arachnids, Myrjapods. and insects 
run up the trees and take shelter under the loose bark, whera 
they may be very easily captured. 

But what I hke best is a good rain overnight, with a fine 
morning following. How fresh and beautiful everything is I 
Beads of moisture scintillate in tnc morning *utij making a 
veritable fairyland of the bush. Spiders* webs staud out and 
show (he beauty of their weaving in 3 manner not discernible 
at other times. Such a morning as this is ideal for a brisk 
walk before starting to collect, and suits the collector who 
wants i<mall beetles, sue]) as Staphs, Pselaphs, and other inter- 
esting small fry, as the rain has brought them out of their little 
crevices and hiding-places, and they will now be found under 
stones, logs, dead leaves on the ground, and in mosses and grass 
tussocks. On such a morning as I have just described I turned 
over a log on the side of the hill, at Ferntrec Gully, and saw 
a specimen of Siagonyx Bfackbowm This is a fairly common 
black Carab, or ground beetle. It is about three-quarters of an 
inch long, with a rather narrow pro thorax, having a slightly 
turned up margin, prominent eyes, long antenrue, and striated 
wing cases. 1 had caught, on previous occasions, quit* a 
number of this beetle without noticing what 1 was now going 
to witness. Seeing something small move near the Siagonyx, 
I bent down to see what it was, and in doing bo alarmed the: 
Siagonyx, which immediately bombarded me. Several species 
of Carabidft* and Paussida* do this, but I was not awaie thai 
members of this genus did so. The noise it made was almost 
imperceptible, and I would never have hcaid it if ] had not 
seen the little puffs of " smoke/' Of course, it is only a vapour, 
and that, is why it was so visible in the heavy, damp air. It 
fired little puffs of acrid vapour the size of a pea, about three 
inches in a direct, line with the body ; then they floated up two 
or three inches, opened out, and disappeared Of three 
individuals tried, two fired eight times and one nine times. 
Whether this is the full capacity of their magazine- F 00 not 
know, but it would seem probable. On the sides of the hills 
numerous Arthropods (articulated invertebrates) live, some of 
which will seldom, if ever, be found in the gullies, while others 
rarely leave the gullies. 

ilfi , Oku, Ah Entomologist in the Dandowngs. [voT'x'xxix. 

Let us take a walk: up one of the hills at Ferntrec Gully or 
Belgrave, and then down through the gully. One of the first 
ubjects that will attract the eye are dried eucalypt leaves 
suspended m spiders' webs. These are the homes of our 
common leaf -rolling spider. Awnem wagiterj, Rainl-, a pretty 
little spider, varying very much in colour and markings, but 
may generally be said to be a mixture of buff and lemon- It 
is sutpiising how such a frail-legged little creature as this is 
can curl up these leaves. It is very common in these hills, 
or, at least, the females are, but, though I have searched very 
carefully and examined hundreds of webs and rolls, I have 
not succeeded in finding the male. Perhaps the females have 
eaten them all, for spiders have an easy way of settling their 
matrimonial differences, There is no divorce or judicial 
separation with them, and, though there is strong evidence of 
incompatibility on the part of (he female, it is probably due 
to htmgei, not temper, as in some other females. The males 
seem to be more peaceful, and more contented to live and let 
Jive, After a biicf courtship and a shorter married life, the 
females eat their consorts. I have several times seen female 
spiders eating males, and have seen strong evidence, such as 
debris containing a male pedipalp, around the female retreat, 
that this often takes place, but have never seen any sign of a 
male eating a female, and doubt if it ever takes place. Araneus 
wagnm seems to have completely taken the place on these 
hills nf Gitslrocanika minax, the Thorn-backed Spider of the 
flats around Lower Fctntree Gully and Ringwood. The ordinary 
form of this latter spider does not seem to be on these hills, 
though I have taken its black form near the station at Belgrave- 

Turn over a lug. What a hurry-seucry takes place \ Two 
Staphylinids disappear almost before we have tLme to see 
them, One, the first to disappear, was certainly a Conurus. 
These beetles run very quickly, with an undukuing motion> 
and have a distinctive look about them, even when running, 
'.veil known to the collector, but difficult (o describe The other 
was probably cither a Quedius or a Philonthus. When 
collecting Staphs, quickness is essential, and caie must be taken, 
as they arc so easily damaged. Crustaceans of the sand-hopper 
type hop about in all directions, and often prevent one from 
catching some much-desired little insect. Smnll white 
Myriapods are plentiful, but are probably only immature 
forms. A cockroach rushes along and sticks its head into a 
)>o!c, and rniscs the tip of its abdomen as high as possible into 
the air. Tt is Platyzoskn atwli^ Sauss., a common cockroach, 
about an inch in length, black, or nearly black, with a dull 
reddish margin and a polished surface. Jf you want to catch 
him, gently tap him two or three times with a stick. He v>ill 

*mVi] ORE, Ah Entomologist in the Datidmongn. 1 19 

squirt out a water-white fluid, after which it is safe to handle 
him. I once caught one without taking this precaution, and, 
on receiving the fluid on my hand, smelt if, I raised the hand 
to Within three or four inches of my nose. Both wnoll and 
sensation resembled glacial acetic add The inside of both 
nostrils felt as though they had been hurnt, and it made the 
eyeb water. By the time you have caught your oocKruaeh 
nothing will he leit but a few Adeliums. These beetles are so 
slow that they will remain for some time before leisurely 
walking off. Having seen what was of interest under your 
log, please put it back, where it will act as a covei to be turned 
over on another occasion- and, as so many bisects pupate just 
bebw the surface under cover like this, it gives them a chance 
to breed. r 

It would be as well to turn over a few more logs and find 
out what lives under them. On turning over logs and stones 
it is quite a common occurrence to see underneath what looks 
like a greyish animal, with a multiplicity of legs, rush off, A 
common name for these creatures is forty-legged scorpions . 
but as they are not related to scorpions, and only have twenty 
legs, the name is. not at all suitable. They belong to the family 
Scutigendse, of the Myriapoda. in which they arc peculiar on 
account of their Lice ted eyes, long antenna*, possession of 
lungs, and a remarkable sense organ under the head. The 
poison claws are well developed,, but whether they are capable 
oi inflicting a really poisonous injection is a moot point. Alive 
or freshly killed they are very pretty little creatures, of a pale 
blue-green, with some pink markings, and brown antennae 
and feet. What sense ts situated in the organ under the head 
is not known. Other Myriapods that abound under logs are 
millipedes and centipedes. Millipedes are harmless, inoffensive 
vegetable feeders, and without poison claws, but generally 
have well-developed glandular odori ferae — " stink glands." 
These do not seem to develop any strong smell in the species in 
these hills. Centipedes arc a more numerous class, and show 
a greater diversity in colour, size, and number of feet. The 
colours range from btue-green. green, red, brown, yellow, and 
white. The number of legs differs. The common greens and 
reds have twenty-one pairs, some of the browns and yellows 
thirty-eight p&irs, while some, of the thin, paler ones have 
as many as seventy-two pairs. These latter ones arc very 
thin, and are oniy as thick as a bit of knitting silk. One thing 
that may be of interest is the way they poison. 1 have heard 
it asserted that they sting with the appendages on the tail, 
also that they bite with their mouths. Neither is* really correct, 
as the poison claws are not, strictly speaking, a part of the 
mouth. Just behind the mouth, on the under surface,, is a 

!io Oke, Ah Entomologist in the fiartdenovgs, [v^^jtxjftfec 

transveisc plate, having at either end a. sharp, curved fang or 
claw. It is with these that they inject their poison, T*> a 
casual observer this plate will appear to be a pait of the mouth, 
especially as on its upper edge it bears two small projections 
having a dentated edge, winch are used in crushing its food ; 
but It is pasily detached, and when removed leaves all the mouth 
parts exposed. 

Spiders are well represented, and members of several families 
are to be met with, the most numerous kmd toeing Lycosids, of 
WoH Spiders, and some large black Dirty mds, Phalangids 
are found under logs, and are mostly of the short-legged type ; 
hut these and scorpions, which are also met with, are more 
nurnexous in the gullies. 

Cockroaches are represented by several species, and their 
egg-capsules are very common objects They are well worth 
a close scrutiny. Cockroaches carry their eggs about with 
them in the capsules, sometimes till they aie ready to hatch. 
Along its upper edge are a number of serrations \ these are 
probably of use to the insect in holding it; but each serration' 
is ihe top of an egg. Paneslhia australis, Brunn., the largest 
cockroach In this district, is very common under logs and in 
rotting wood. 

Rather a rarity is that peculiar, grotesque-looking, wingless 
mantis, Pataxypilus tasntaniensis, Sauss,, which, unlike other 
mantids. lives under stones and logs. 

Beetles- belonging to several families are to be found, the 
greatest number of species belonging to the Carabidie. One 
very interesting member of this family is the common Noto- 
tiointiS phiUipsi, Cast. , this is a black, shining beetle with 
greenish, (sometimes purple) reflections, about three-quarter? of 
an inch long During the winter they will often be found under 
logs, and less often undei stories, jjj a little chamber ji inches 
across and halt an inch deep. This is their breeding chamber. 
Do the beetles make it themselves, or do they select sorrm 
suitable depression ? As they are usually so much alike, one 
would think they must be made by the beetles; but as T have 
never seen any sign of the dug-out earth having been deposited 
around,, and as the beetles are not provided with any pronounced 
digging apparatus like that possessed by the Gnthophagi and 
other digging Scarabs, I am inclined to the former view. In 
this chamber thirty or forty little elongate eggs are deposited. 
They are almost white at first, but turn to a pale yellow before 
hatching. The little grubs are white when first hatched, but 
in a day orjiwo turn yellow, and then gradually into a ]jgj)t 
brown. On turning back the enver, after the eggs have been 
laid, and until the grubs have left this nest, the mother will 
almost invariably be found standing over the rggs or larva 

***** J Okt. '^ n ^ A ^ onw '°P- rti >rj t? le Dandsnowgz 151 

(as the case may be), and showing every sign &f fear and 
anxiety for the safety of her offspring She generally turns 
round and round or makes little runs backward and forward, 
and but seldom running away Jt would be very interesting 
to know if the mother feed* the young during the time they 
remain in the breeding chamber. If so, it must be with 
regurgitated juices, as I have never found any sign of debris 
in or near this breeding chamber. This, of course, is very 
unusual in the insect world, as very few insects, with the 
exception of the social Hymenoptera, ever see their offspring. 
I do not know how long the grubs remain in Hie maternal home, 
but 1 believe it to be about three weeks after hatching. 

Numerous ants have their homes under Jogs, hut the one 
most frequently met with is A?nb!yponc ausirtilis, a light brown 
ant with a sneaky way of walking and a nasty sting. Bull ants, 
Myrmecia, sps., are also partial to logs. Stones harbour a 
similar kind of animal life. Some species stem to prefer the 
stones, others the logs. Pew, if any, are absolutely restricted 
to cither. Ants are certainly more numerous under the 
stunes than the logs, and provide an interesting subject for 
study, as also do their jnquilincs. As these inqudmes are 
usually so scarce and take so long to find, we will leave them 
undisturbed to-day, for, though this is the best time of the 
year to )ook lor them, it needs such careful looking in the nests 
that we would not see the other interesting ifems. The 
commonest ant in these bills is Ectalomma acicufaitm, Sra , 
while the ant having the largest colonies is AphanagesUr 
fonp-iceps. This ant is not very active during the winter, and 
seems to keep underground as much as possible- Tt is a 
perfectly harmless ant. Not. so the Jumping Ant, Mynnecia 
■pyriformis (?), which has a most severe sting> and always seems 
to be seeking a ff casus belli." Winter is the only time when it 
is possible to spend more than a few seconds at a time looking 
in their nests, as dunng the cold, wet weather they are not so 
energetically militant as duiing the warmer months; but 
should they get on you they lose no time in bringing their stings 
into action. Onfe of our larger Staphs., Kant-hokum phrenic- 
opfcrus, Er., seems to me to exhibit a queer taste in often 
pupating in the sides of these nests, whieh is a place I would 
not think of tarrying in ; yet this beetle couid not he called 
an inquiline, as it is found in a number of situations in, no way 
connected with ants Under these stones are to be found 
what arc known as vegetable caterpillars, because they resemble 
little toadstools, having a caterpillar for a root This is due 
to a peculiar iungus called Cordvceps. This gemis nf fungus 
attacks caterpillars that live m the ground, killing them and 
then growing out of one end of them, T have found it growing 

172 Oke, An Entomologist in the baitdfnongs. [voT"xxxVx 

out of Scarab (Dynastid) grubs, and the Swift Moth cater- 
pillars, Purina ( ? sp — probably ftfsco-maaUiita). 

Under the bark of trees many insects and spiders live, and 
?-o let us stnp off a little from some smooth-barked gums. It 
is surprising the number of spiders that come htmbhng down 
tiom some trees; They belong 1 to several families, Drassids, 
Clubionids, Thomisides, Argiopids, Dictynids, and Attids being 
very common. Solders have very few enthusiasts, and yet 
they arc very interesting in their habits, and show such a 
diversity of structure in their anatomy that fu study them 
properly would prove very interesting. In studying the 
classification of a spider so much has ru be thought of; the 
number of Jung-books, the disposition of the spinnarets, presence 
or absence Of a cribellum, and the mimber and arrangement 
of the eyes being the more important items. Numerous 
Carahs are very common oh these trees, as also are some weevils 
and Tcnebrios. Longicorns are very scarce ; practically the 
only one to be taken is Tesswomma undaium, Nevm., but a 
nice fresji specimen of this is -very pretty. It is about three- 
quarters of an incb in length, of a prcttv cinnamon-brown, 
with a bluish blush on the shoulders and along the sides, with 
a pretty design of gold and dark brown markings. Several 
species of Hymenoptera appear to be hibernating under the 
bark. Bugs are plentiful, and in every stage of development. 
One curious species is the Hairy-legged Bug, Ptilocncmus. This 
bug is half an inch long, and lias a tuft: of hain* on its hind 
tibf&j and on stripping off the piece of bark that shelters one 
it appears to be very agitated, and keeps on tapping with its 
hind legs, using alternately its right and kit leg; probably its 
idea 5s to frighten other insects., which might easily find it an 
alarm rug spectacle. Under the loose bark one: may often come 
across 3 creature of mteisst At first glance it reseinbks a small 
crab, or a scorpion without a tail. Tt is an Arachnid, and 
therefore related to the v scoi pious. Tt belongs to the Chernctidie, 
and is commonly called a "false scorpion," or Chelifer, after 
a typical genus The jar of pulling off the ban; generally makes 
them run under any bit of cover handy, such as, say, a piece 
of cobweb Wt'it a while, and out it comes, very carefully sensing 
its way by waving its pedipalps in front of it. Having no eyes, 
it must ieel its way carefully, and as it advances it seems to 
be all on the qui vivc. It rarely walks straight ahead, but 
meanders along, pausing frequently, as though to consider what 
is in the air. Touch the bark just behind it, and away it runs 
with every sign of 1 hesitancy gone. They neatly always run 
an inch or two and then turn aumnd to face the danger, and 
run away backwards. This may be for two reasons, one being 
that they look more fearsome from the front view, and it allows 

*?l l i\) Oscrc, An Entomologist in Ike Dandenonfc. 


them to protect themselves from attack with their pedipntps ; 
the second is that they can rim much quicker backwards than 
forwards. Under the cluws, on tjjc ends of the legs, they have 
a peculiar trumpet -shaped membranous organ. These are 
spoken of as suckers in text-books, but it is highly probable 
that' they receive sound waves with them- Make the faintest 
scratch with a piece of grass several inches behind one, and 
it immediately jumps around to face whence the noise comes, 
thus proving that they can hear or feet very much finer 
vibrations than we can. Chehfers do not spin snares for 
catching their prey, though they arc provided with spinning 
organs. These open out on the digit, of the chehecra. and are 
only used for making a small web at breeding time. The 
possibilities of bark-stripping, even in winter, are practically 
inexhaustible, and it is often that small piece which does not 
look as though it were worth bothering about that harbours 
some precious little 'specimen. But it would only tire you 
were J to go into more detail it to say that repre- 
sentatives of every order of insects are to be taken. 

Ju shady nooks, and sometimes out in Ihe open, occur little 
plots of inoss- Bags of this should he taken home for sifting 
over white paper. Sometimes it will be found to be teeming 
with animal lite. Certainly most of it is small, but none the 
less interesting for that. Beetles arc the most numerous 
inhabitants of moss, and the families that are most numerously 
represented are Sfaphylinido?, »-?laphid<€, Carabid#, and 
Curcuhonidae. Some "individual soccies arc very common; 
others you might only come across once in a lifetime. 

Having had z Iptift e\t a few of the small inhabitants nn the 
hills, let us go down into the gully. There is no sharp dis- 
tinction in the Arthropod fauna, as might have been expected. 
Certainly a few species live exclusively in the gullies, but their 
numbers are small and, as a rule, they exhibit no structural 
peculiarities to differentiate them from those that live on the 
lulls. It is the dampness that attracts so much life here, and 
that is why some forms are quite common here and are com* 
paratively scarce on the hills. When hunting down here one 
cannot fail to notice the remarkable numbers of hopping 
crustaceans that abound everywhere ; under or in cover of any 
sort they will be found. Many species of Arachnids are 
common : scorpions, spiders, chelifeis. phalangids, and mites 
are all to be found in numbers. Scorpion ids is represented by 
one species only ; it is very commor., and may often be found, 
especially la early winter, under a log or stom\ covered with 
its young. The young are a pale cream when first born, and 
cling to the mother's" back; gradually they become mottled 
with brown, and then leave their mother's u»re to fend for 


Oke. Av Entomologist w iha Dd-ndenou^s. [vJ^Mnr 

themselves. This scorpion is a contradiction to the statement, 
often seen iu books, that they are inhabitants of dry, and parts, 
tor it is only to he found in damp situations Therp are many 
points, of inteiesr that suggest themselves in connection with 
the biology and bioncmics of these liltle rreatures, Two in 
particular are : What is the function of the pectiues, and to 
what extent are they poisonous ? The pectines are situated 
on the under surface of the second abdominal segment, and 
are comb-like in appearance. Various suggestions have been 
made as to their function, but it is probable they arc connected 
with sex, as they are more developed in the mali\ No doubt 
in would be easy to ascertain the effect of their sting, but one 
hesitates to t*y it. Spiders (Aruneai) are very numerous, both 
in regard to species and individuals, perhaps the most inter- 
esting kind bong one about three -quarters of an inch long, 
and iM'ich heavier in build than is usual with the ordinary or 
true spiders, 1 have said " true spiders/' fur. white it certainly 
is a spider, it has /out Lung-books, and its chelicera (erroneously 
called jaws) work up 3.nd down. These art the characters of 
the Avicularidct, or trap-door spiders. Othci spiders have two 
hing'hooks, and their chelicera work sideways. This spider is 
not uncommon amongst rotten wood, but does not, as far as; I 
am aware, have a door to its tunnel- Chelifers (Chernetida:) 
are much less common, and few in species ; but they ate to lie 
found in moss And amongst, decaying leaves on the ground. 
Phalangids are fairly numerous, and at least one species very 
common These Arachnids are generally dubhed " spiders. 1 ' 
but may easily he distinguished from spiders by the absence 
of a " waist/' there being no constituted pedicle between the 
cephalothorax and the abdomen. Phalangids also have only- 
two eyes, situated in a little turret-like protubwanee on the 
raput. There is one very curious form that may be found 
clinging to the "hairy" part of the tret-ferns, the body of 
which is only one-sixth of an inch in diameter (it rs practically 
a flat circle), with very long legs. The chelicera are chelate, 
and nearly three-quarters of an inch long. The le^s are thin, 
but slightly swollen at the joints, and at their ends are very 
thin and prehensile. The length of the four pairs of legs is 
approximately t, 2, x{-, and iA inches. Altogether, it is a 
remarkable looking creature. 

By far the commonest Phalangid is one that may be found 
under logs.. &c, and in moss. A mature specimen measures 
under half an inph, and is a dark rcd-r.rown. the front appendages 
J)eing more t eddish. The chelicera are heavily built and 
chelate (formed like the large claws of a crab) The pcdipalps 
<ire idso Inick, with a row of teeth on the upper and lower edge 
of its inner surface for crushing its prey. With the exception 

i^siJ ^ KI? ' ^ H Entomologist hi the Vandcnon^. ja* 


of these appendages the whole upper surface is coriaceous and 
opaque, ami the upper surface bevond the caput is armed with 
transverse ftytfk of obtuse tubercles. Phalrtngids ate provided 
with stink glands, and in this bpecics they must be well 
developed, fen* their presence is readily delected by their 
peculiar pungeni odour. The only other thing that I know of 
that smeJls like them is certain species of Ichneumon flics when 
they Are emerging from their pup;e. These iwo smells have 
a great resemblance to one another, 

Mites (Ac^mna) abound everywhere. Their numbers are 
legion, and a handful of moss or rotting leaves, taken at raudom, 
is suns to contain several different species Brilliant red with 
white spots is the colour of one of the largest. Others arc dull 
red. brown, yellow, and black, while others are mottled. One 
of* the prettiest is a mixture of red and brown, with white spots. 

Centipedes are plentiful, and towards s-pring will often be 
found under any sort of cover rolled around their egg-masses. 
The prevailing large htne-gieen species lays very pal*? yellow 
eggs, while those of the thin yellow speeies are a pretty helio- 
trope or mauve colour, 

Insects of every order live in these gnllics, and may*be taken 
in some stage of their development at this time of the year 
Springtails (Collembola) arc in every moist spot- On being 
disturbed they spring in any direction that chance ma}' take 
them, without regard to whether danger or safety lies that way. 
What a pity they ais so frail * It does not give us much of a 
chance to examine them properly, or to sec how they really 
spring. It is easy enough to see the spiing extended after it 
has been used, but to sec how it is held by its catch, or by what 
mechanism it is released, is very difficult. Orthoptera. are 
scarce. An earwig or two, three species of crickets, and a few 
cockroaches are about all Hymenoptera are better represented. 
An occasional parasitical fly (Ichneumonids, &c.) may be seen. 
Wasp:*' mud nests can be obtained for breeding .it home ; while 
ants can be obtained in great numbers, with one specie.^ at 
least, peculiar to the gullies. Coleoptera arc, as usual, the 
most numerous in species. They arc to be found in all kinds 
of places — in fact, it is almost impossible to imagine a spot 
where some kind or other will not he fuund- Lcpidoptera are 
scarce in the wiuged stage, but a few larva 1 and pupm are to 
be found. A fair number of Hcmiptera (bugs) will be found 
in mo*9, under cover on the ground, and under bark. Xu the 
latter place one queer little wraiih exists; it is long and thin, 
•and when disturbed raises itself up as high as possible on its 
legs and rocks itself up and dovut and sideways. It moves 
slowly at first, then, either gradually or suddenly, quicker and 
quicker tiiJ it is impossible to follow its movements, no doubt 

ii<5 Gke, An Entomologist in the Dandenangs, [vuutxxlx. 

thereby often frightening lis enemies. Diprera (two-winged 
flics) arc fairly plentiful, though mostly small. A few 
mosquitos (Cul'icida) and ** Daddy long-legs* 1 ' (Tibulida) 
persist through the winter as also does a small wingless fly 
And various other forms. 

Now for a short note on a tin ec days* stay at Belgrave on the 
ist, 2nd, and 3rd of July, 1*921. This was arranged wrth the 
idea of collecting beetles, and particularly to try to obtain 
another specimen of a species of Chlamydopsis, of winch I had 
previously obtained a single specimen. In this I was un- 
successful, but by dint of much searching 1 obtained three 
specimens of two species belonging to tins genus new to science, 
and by bringing bags of moss back to the hoarding-house, and 
.sitting up till (he small hours of the morning, I secured many 
fine (in more ways than one) beetles. What pleasure it is 
teasing muss over paper and seeing all sorts of small animal 
life come tumbling out! What fascinating little things I saw! 
But time will not permit of mentioning e\en the barest details 
now. For the three days 1 brought home 156 species of beetles. 
Several others were seen, but passed over as being too common 
to take, the families supplying the greatest numbers being : — 
Cnrcuhomdae (34), Carabidce (32), Staphylinidse (25), Tene- 
brionidas (21), Pselaphiche (19). 

Having givcti some -slight account of what is to be seen in 
the Paudenongs during the winter, 1 thiiiK you will agree with 
me that there is plenty to see, and still more to learn about 
its Arthropods. 

" Some Wiljv Flowers op Tasmania." — The issue of a second 
edition of a, botanical work of tins description indicates that 
some notice must be taken of the native flowers of the island 
State The author, Mr. L- Rndway, Government Botanist, has 
introduced a. considerable amount of interesting matter into 
his descriptive notes, which, while not being too technical, 
should afford his readers a great deal of the " why and where- 
fore " regarding the floral organs of the various plants dealt 
■with. Only the more noticeable flowers art described. These 
ate grouped into seventeen chapters, such as "The Rose 
Family." "Purple Heather, also Blue Love," " Sheoke and 
Beech," &c. A couple of pages of vernacular names are given. 
Unfortunately, many are very different to ours for the same 
plants. The work is illustrated by reproductions of photo- 
graphs, which in some cases hardly" do justice to the subject. 
Seeing that many Tasmanian flowers, or very closely allied 
species, occur also in Victoria, flower-In vers in this State should 
imd its 145 pages very useful It tS published by the Govern- 
ment Printer, and costs three shillings and sixpence. 

the Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 10. FEBRUARY 8, 1923. No. 470. 


The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Society's Kail on Monday evening, 15th January, 1923. 

In the absence of the president (Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S.) 
through illness, Mr. E. E. Pescott, F,L,S., one of the vice- 
presidents, occupied the chair, and about fifty members and 
visitors were present. 

The chairman referred to, the loss the Club had sustained 
since the last meeting by the death of Mr. J. R. Tovey- 
He moved that a letter of sympathy be forwarded to his widow 
and family. The motion was seconded by Mr. F. G- A. 
Barnard and supported by Messrs. C. French, jun., H. B. 
Williamson, F.L.S., A, J, fadgdi, F. Pitcher, and Dr. C. S. 
Sutton, and carried in silence, all standing. 

A report of the excursion to Upwey on Saturday, 36th 
December, was given by the leader, Mr. C. Oke t who said that 
a small party left town by (he morning train. On arrival at 
Upwey they investigated the country on the northern side 
of the line and found many insects and plants to interest them. 
This portion of the ranges was found to be almost in its 
primitive state, and contains much of interest to nature-lovers. 


On a ballot being taken, Mr. Harold Bailey, Albury, N.S.W., 
was duly elected as a country member. 


The* chairman said that, the committee had decided to 
recommend to the Club that on account of his many services 
to the Club in its earlier years, Mr. C. French, sen., one of the 
founders of the Club in 1880, and formerly Government 
Entomologist, be elected an honorary member of the Club. 
He had much pleasure in moving to that effect. The motion 
was seconded by Mr. D. Best, who was co-founder with Mr. 
French, and supported by Messrs. F. G. A. Barnaid and P, 
Pitcher, two _ of the few remaining original members, and on 
being put to the meeting was earned unanimously. 


By Mt. F. Chapman, A,L.5„ FR.M.S,. entitled "On a 
Ca*t of a Sea Urchin from the Red Sands of Studley Park, 

The author said that the finding of this cast of a Kalimnan 
sea urchin, apparently allied to the Lovenia of the Beaumaris 

1 2S l-iald Nahiralistr,' Club— Proceeding. [ v J(j xxxlx. 

cliffs, conclusively decided the age of the Red Sands io be 
Lower Pliocene, and belonging to the same series as the Brighton 
ironstone beds. The cast was found some years ago, during a 
University geology excursion, and he was indebted to Professor 
Skeats, D.Se., for the opportunity of examining and describing 


In place of a second paper, members were asked to give any 
experiences during outings taken in the Christmas holiday*. 

Mr. C. Okc said that he had visited Wright (Emerald Jinc) 
on Christmas Day, and, though the day was very showery, 
he bad managed to collect a few interesting insects. He had 
also found a specimen of a Peripatus, a rare Arthropod, found 
in damp spols under logs, &c, and a live specimen of ;he large 
black land snail. Parafhania atrammtaria. On New Year's 
Day he had visited Pakenhcvm, under different conditions, as 
the day turned out very hot. Here he had found several 
nests of an interesting ant, Indtomynncx mtidun, in which 
several species of minute beetles, which live associated with 
ants, were taken. One of those taken was Giymptoma kingi, 
a bright reddish-brown Staphyhmd, hitherto unrecorded (or 
southern Victoria. 

Mr. H. B. Williamson, FL-S., gave an outline of a trip to 
the Bogong High Plains via Tallangatta, Mitta Mitta, and 
Glen Wills. He spent two nights on - the top/' and with two 
companions — Mr. Downes and Mr. S. Clinton — traversed " the 
plains/' covering about 30 miles of the country above the 
5,000-feet. level. Mr. Downes provided horses, including one 
for the pack*. Mr. Clinton, formerly teacher at Mitta Mitta 
school, who is an enthusiastic mountain rover and plant; 
observer, did the journey (nearly fifty miles) on foot He 
reported that many interesting alpine plants were collected, 
one of which appears to be an tuidcscribed Brachycome, and 
promised to present a fuller account, illustrated, of the trip 
at a later date. 

Mr. E. E. Pcscott, F.L.S.. said that he had spent a fortnight 
at Belgrave, in the Dandenong Ranges, and was quite satisfied 
that our '* hill " country is among the finest in the Common- 
wealth. The scenery is glorious, and the fern glens and gullies 
are grand. He went to Sherbrookc Gully and Falls one day. 
This is the finest piece of nature near to Melbourne, and is well 
worth visiting over and over again Here he met a visitor 
who complained of the rigid regulation that he could not take 
away two 01 three ferns He was told that if every visitor 
did that there would soon be no Sherbrookc Gully. He saw 
in a private gully a very fine specimen of the Tasmanian 
" Leather-wood/' Encryfhia Biilavdieti : it was ahout ten feet 

K* b s] Fidd NflhiYaiiiUi.' Club — Ptocetdivv- 129 

in height and in full flower, and was one of the finest dowering 
shrubs lie had ever seen. The clusters of dainty white flowers. 
not unlike plum blossom, were very beautiful Orchids were 
scarce. It was rather early for the " Hyacinth " Orchid, 
Dt podium finndalwt. but one or two good spikes were found. 
The " Potato " Orchid. GastroJiu $vsiwioide$ t was found in one 
of the gullies, its flowering evidently having been retarded by 
the secluded position. One fruiting specimen was found, 
nearly four feet in height, crowned with thirty-nine seed-heads. 

Mr. A. Brown said that members who desired to see virgin 
country, untouched by bush fires, should visit the Latrobe 
Valley, via Koojee. where some of the finest forest scenery 
in Victoria existed. 


Mr. D. Best said that during a recent walk through the 
Asylum grounds at Kew he had noticed that, the English elms 
planted along the main drive were being attacked by a 
well-known wood- boring beetle, Uracunihns acuta This 
beetle, in its larval state, tunnels the branches of the trees, 
aud finally, when about to complete its larval life, cuts the 
branches almost off. so that they are easily broken .by the 
wind, and thus seriously disfigures the trees. He thought that 
the beetle had taken to the elms on account of their natutul 
food tretfl, the Silver Wattle, having become so scarce. 

Mr. F. E. Wilson mentioned that during a recent visit to 
Bayswater he had found a specimen of the parasitic fungus, 
Cordyceps. known as the vegetable caterpillar, growing on 
the larva of a beetle, probably an Elaterid Tt was about 
three-quarters »■( an inch in length, but he was keeping it in 
cool and moist conditions to sec if it would develop further. 

Mr. Y G A. Barnard said that about eighteen months 
before he had planted a number of eucalypts and acacias m 
his garden at Kew. These were now five or six feet high 
and doing well, but he had found they Mere not immune to 
insect attacks. In the spring the leaf-eating larva of a small 
moth had done much damage to the foliage by spinning the 
young leaves aud shoots together, and so disfiguring the 
trees. Then, during the warm summer evenings they had 
been visited by quantities of a small brown Scarabid beetle. 
resembling the ordinary cockchaici, but only about three- 
quarters of an inch in length. These arrived on the wing all 
at once just about sunset, and, though not settling on the trees 
for more than a few seconds at a time, managed to bite the 
young leaves, serratmg the edges and quite spoiling the appear- 
ance of the trees. The visitation lasted only about a quarter 
of an hour, when the bee Lies departed just as suddenly as they 

130 Field Naturalists' Club— Proceedings. [v^xxxix. 

arrived. At first the gums seemed the favoured food, but 
latterly two or three of the acacias had proved the attraction. 

Several members said they had noticed similar occurrences 
but to a lesser extent than Mr. Barnard, 

Mr. C. Oke said that when collecting recently in the Caulfteld 
district he noticed a number of holes in the ground similar to 
those made by trap-door spiders. On digging - up several of thn 
holes lie found- them to be inhabited by a lygosid spider, a form 
which he had newer before found occupying such a habitation, 


By Mr. F. G. A- Barnard. — -Live specimen of the Red-striped 
(poisonous) Spider, LaUodectus &ceho t taken. at Kcw. 

By Mr. A. S. Blake. — Blooms of Eucalyptus macrocavpa, a 
native of Western Australia., grown at Ivanhoe. These were 
very fine., measuring at least three inches across. 

By Mr. F, Chapman, A.L.S. — Cast of fossil sea urchin, 
Lovenia (sp-?b from the Kalimnan Red Sands of Studley Park, 
Kew ; examples of Lovcnia forbest, a common Kalimnan sea 
urchin, from the Beaumaris cliffs ; a. collection of seaweeds, from 

By Mrs. Coleman. — Bark of the Lace-bark tree (N.O. 
Thymeleacere) of Jamaica, 

By Gclogical Survey of Victoria (per Mr. A. E. Rod-da). — 
Aboriginal scrapers and clappings, from Coward Springs. South 

By Mr. C. Oke. — Insects from Upwey excursion ; Lycosid 
spiders living in tunnels with trap-doors, from Caulfield. 

By Mr. F. Pitcher. — Flowering specimens and plants for 
distribution of Clematis glycmoides, D.C, Erect Clematis, grown 
at South Yarra. • 

By Mr. A. E. Rodda. — Live Carp fry from Yarra billabongs, 
East Kew. 

By Mr. J. Searle. — Rare rotifer from Queensland, Tfocho- 
spluura a>quatorialis t Semper. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 

A Rare Rotifer, — The rotifer exhibited at the January 
meeting of the Club was originally found Jfl ditches in the 
rite-fields of the Philippine Islands, and was named and 
described as Tfochosph&ra wquatorialis by Professor Semper 
in 1S72. It has a transparent, spherical body, with the 
principal ciliary wreath round the middle ot the sphere. It 
has since been discovered in Queensland by Mr. W. R, 
Colledge, of Brisbane, to whom I am indebted tor the speci ' 
mens, and its occurrence described by him in the journal of 
the Queensland Field Naturalists* Club.— J. Sharus., 

\ml Macgidlivrav, tviptoN &N W . from Broken Hill ijji 



By Dr. W. Macgiluvray. 

(Head before Ihe Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria, i 3M Nov., 19".) 

ON tUfi 13th August. 1921, Dr, Chcnery and I packed uui 
belongings on a Ford trolley and started in the forenoon on 
.the northern road. Two friends, Mr. and Mrs. Heywood, and 
my son were to- follow after hinch in a Dodge car. From 
Broken Hill the road crosses Stephens Geek, nine miles out! 
arid runs parallel with a tributary stream, bordered — as are 
ail these creeks, in the Barrier Range — with Red Gum, 
Eucalyptus rosltata. Wc pass the ruins of the old Mt. Cipps 
woolshed, cross a sandy water-course with odd specimens of Acacia 
scntis along its banks, and make our way over a rocky rise, 
which is quite gay with flowering plants and shrubs — Ercnw- 
•philu ultefmfolxa, Isotoma pclYwa, and Prtnianihcra striatiflora 
— which seem to get all the nourishment that they want from 
crevices in the rocks. 

We pass a point in the sandy water-course marked by a 
jutting rock where there is a soak, doubtless known of old to 
the aborigines, and scraped out in time of drought by the 
Euros, Ma.cropus rvbusin$ (Kangaroos) and Yellow-footed Rock- 
Wallabies, Petrogale xanthopus t that were at one time plentiful 
in these ranges, A fine patch of Acacia Burkitti, flowering ifl 
a valley on our left, attracts our attention soon after crossing 
the Tarrawingee railway line- Albiontown, now a few ruins, 
serves to remind us of the silver boom of earlier year*, 
Crossing Yaleowjnna Creek, we make our WaV up a long 
stony rise, barren at most times, but now gay with white 
and yellow composited — Helipteruwi ftorilntndum^ H. cotymbt- 
fiorum. H. inosehatmn, and H. polygtilifoli-MH, and occasional 
puTple patches of Swainsona Uphroirycha. Soon after passing 
Thompson's Siding, and ascending on to the stony country 
again, the purple Swainsona patches become more frequent, 
but are rivalled by the beautiful brown and yellow Swainsona 
phacifolia. We run parallel with Campbell's Creek for a tune, 
turn to ouf Tight near the ruins of an old hostelry, pass through 
a patch of that curious broom-hke shrub, Tcmphtoma cgena, 
and enter the Euriowie Hills. 

The country here, responding to an unusual rainfall, looked 
like a garden ; even the Dead Finish, Acacia letragonophylia, 
usually so rugged and forbidding with its spiky phyllodes, was 
now gaily dressed in yellow fuz/.y balls, and had never looked 
so well for many years. Hclipternvi polygalifuliuw , with its 
golden heads, and the crucifer, BUnnodw- tesiocarpa, coloured 
the hillsides yellow or white, as position or soil favoured one 

32 Macgillivray, Trip to bt. &N.W-from Broken IiilL [v^'xxxix- 

or the other.' Cockatoos, Cacahta sanguined and C. rosdcapillcf, 
came out of hollows in the gum-trees on every creek that we 
.passed. Proceeding through picturesque hilly country till 
within a mile or two of Fowler's Gap, we pull off the road on 
to a creek bank to await the other car. During the hour that 

we had to wait we rambled along the creek, Avhich was well 
tenanted by Bare-eyed Cockatoos, Cacaina savguinea, Rose- 
breasted Cockatoos, C. roseicapilla, Ring-necks, Barnardius 
barnardi, Crested Pigeons, Ocyphaps lopkotes, and Yellow- 
throated Miners, Myzaniha flamgtda. After billy tea we go on, 

'tvi'] ' ^ACplLttYKAy, -trip loN. &-N. W.fvom Broken tiiU. 1}$ 

and stay for the night at the Fowler's Gap Hotel, where \vc 
were entertained by the landlord's reminiscences till bedtime. 

Wc are up before the grey dawn, and follow the road over 
gravelly, plain country till we reach Sandy Creek bote, where 
there is a watering-place for travelling stock. The road has 
taken us out of tlir. Barriei Range, and the grave] now give* 
place to sand. The vegetation consists of a few scattered and 
stunted Mulgas, Koclua bushes, and annual salt-bush, with 
a few bunches of Myriocephakts Siunrli t not yet properly out 
in bloom, and the usual white patches of Bknnodia kfSiQcnrpti- 
Bancarmia Lake, 100 miles from Broken Hill, is our next; olace 
of call — an open lake .with a little box timber, Eucalyptus 
bicolor, av. its northern end, and at present only half full. 

Resuming our journey, die sand-nses north of the lake show 
many evidences of aboriginal occupation in the past In the 
shape of heaps of burnt earth, cooking stones, and scattered 
pounding or grinding stones and nuclei. 'Hie country now 
becomes more sandy, and supports a goodly growth of Mulga. 
Acacia mieura, with an undcrscrub of Turpentine, HyeniophilM 
Sttttti, Ercnwphila Duttom. with a few Hop-bushes (Dodonea). 
Mynoccphakis Skmrk r Xht tine large " Ham and Eggs Daisy,'* 
is here more in evidence. Occasional bright yellow patches of 
Senecto Gregorii and the lighter yellow of Goodcnia glaucu 
tended to brighten the roadside. After passing Packsaddlc, 
an out-station in the scrub, we get into hilly country, passing 
a few rocky outcrops out on to long, undulating" gravelly 
plains somewhat bare of vegetation On one of these stands the 
iduna Park Hotel, with a tobacco-bush (Ntcotiam Qlaucti) ci'eck 
about half a mile in front, and another about a mile in the rear, 
bordered by a few scattered red gum and box trees. Wc push 
on till we come to the *and hill* that surruund Cobham Lake, 
at present dry, but the sand-hills are covered with vegetation. 
The gtcy-gicen foliage and hiruj; racervies nf yellow flowers on 
CroCalaria disstli flora ctcite our admiration. This is a perennial 
pea that would well repay cultivation ; the hushes grow to 
about two to three feet in height, and were often utilized as k 
support by a climbing pea. Glycine clandestina, with pretty 
little bunches of light purple flowers- The Blennodia growing 
here, B. can£scen%, yar. pterospenna, was very much finer than 
that common about Broken tuft. This is a cfucifer, very lik« 
Candytuft in its inflorescence. Swainsona tephrotr ycha was 
in fine large bunches, with heads having as many as twelve to 
fifteen flowers on each. Many Bennett's Crows, COWS 
hcvmiM, were hutldipg in the Mulgus. must of the nests being 
in couise of construction. 

After leaving the Cobham saud-hiHs our road run for most 
of the Way along flats parallel to and on the eastern side of i 

134 MacciilIVRAY, Trip ioti.&N.W. from Broken l! ill. [vn^xxxix. 

well-wooded creek. These flats are subject to inundation, and. 
at the time of our visit, were supporting a wonderful growth 
uf herbage, mostly salsolaceous and * (more conspicuously) 
flowering plants. Swainsoiia proenmbens, the Gilgai Pea, 
covered acres with a vivid mantle of purple. This is the largest 
of the Swamsonas, and only comes up and flowers in a good 
season, when it is usually to he found in crab-holes, or 
"gilgais," in salt-bush plains, or on flooded flats. We note 
that a large, bushy Eremophila has added itself to the vegetation 
near the creek ; this is the " Quea Murra " of the blacks, -or 
Enmophiia btgnonue flora oi botanists. A nutnbei of ■ stems 
commonly grow up from a common root stock and spread out 
fanwise, hence the blackfellows' name, which means fish's 
hand or fin. 

About ten miles and we come to Milpatinka A efrfiky bluff 
intrudes itself on the right, and marks another change in the 
vegetation, as it is the southern limit of the Gidgee, or Stinking 
Acacia, A. cqmbagci, a fine limber tree, growing larger than 
any other .Acacia irt Western New South Wales, many being 
fGrty to fifty feet high, with solid trunks two feet in diameter. 
Tire wood is exceptionally durable, and takes a fine polish. 
When a slower of rain falls on the foliage a most disagreeable 
and sickening odour is given off. and no bushman ever lingers 
in a Gidgee forest when the trees are in flower, as the scertt is 
equally bad The approach to the town is along the creek 
through Red Gums, Gidgee. and Eucalyptus miMothcca Mil- 
parinka was a prosperous town about thirty years or more 
ago, when Mount BiOwne and other gold rushes were being 
boomed ; but the glory lias departed from it now that no mines- 
are being worked, and successive droughts aud (he advent 
of the rabbit have cut down the stock on the stations to almost 
the vanishing point. 

Here we leave the mam road and take one in a westerly 
direction, which leads us through gibber country for nine mile* 
to Mount Poole station . This homestead is picturesquely 
situated at the foot of a ridge with a gum creek running below 
it. It has an historic interest to ah 1 Australians, for it was here 
that Sturt, the greatest of our explorers, and his party wen; 
shut in for many months in 1S45 by a pitiless drought. A few 
hundred yards down the creek, on the opposite side to the 
station, one finds a few old sticks and the ashes of the camp-fires 
where Sturt yarded his sheep and had his camp. Across a gully 
a hundred yatds further down is an old Beef-wood, Grevtllea 
•striata, fenced in, and dose by stands a concrete obelisk erected 
thirty-nintt years ago by the station bands to mark the situ of 
Poole's grave. On the tree itself is plainly to be seen an oval 
bare space from which the bark has been removed, and 

\%l Macciluvkaw Trif>toN.&N-Wfi'omBn>heHHilf. 135 

chiselled into the wood. u J. P., 1845" — Poolers initials and 
the date of his death. The old tree looks good enough to 
weather another seventy-five years or more. What changes 
has that old tree seen since Sturt's time ! and for how long before 
•it is impossible to tell, About two mi Us ^bove this spot is 
the famous Depot GUji. with its Cathedral Rocks, as depicted by 
Sturt himself — the only comparatively permanent water-hole in 
that comer of New South Wales. In Stmt's time, and after, the 
rare floods that came its way swept it clean and left it full, to 
last for twelve months or . more. Man has tried .to improve 
upon Mature by putting a dam across at its upper part ; but, 
instead of converting it. into two permanent holes, Abe result 
has been that it is not swept out when the creek floods, and both 
are silting up, and now only hold a few months' supply- 
Behind the Glen is the mount from which the station takes 
its name, and on Its top a cairn of stones put tbeie by StuH.N 
party. To keep his men from brooding over their enforced 
imprisonment, Sturt got. each man to carry a stone Or two up 
to the top and add it to the pile every day. However, we leave 
all this for our return journey, and hasten on to Mount Sturi, 
station — our destination, for our second night out — where we are 
hospitably entertained by Mr. and Mis, Bartlett ". * 

On the following morning, after a delay occasioned by my 
having to go out to see a sulrjier settlei's wife, who was seriously 
ill, we push on over .undulating gibber country intersected 
with dry Gidgee water-courses, several, of which were examined 
for bird-life, but birds wctc scarce both on the gibber and 3long 
the creeks, as the recent drought had thinned their ranks. 
We come to a gum and Gidgee creek, and follow it down to 
Vandama station, arriving in time for lunch, after which my 
son and Mr. and Mrs- Hey wood §0 out to the blacks' camp, 
where there is an Englishwoman married to one of the aborigines, 
about Lhe ugliest man in the camp. She lives wjth him in n 
humpy, and has two sons, whom she hopes to take to England 
some day. Dr. Cheney and I go down the creek to the wool- 
shed, where there is a good water-hole. We find Galahs and 
Bare-eyed Cockatoos, Cacaiua sanguinea, nesting in ntajJy 
every tre^' but very few bhcls other than Crows, Corvus 
bennetti, and Miners. Myzantha ftavigulft.. 

We were early on the move next morning, taking ' Siddown 
Jimmy" from the camp as our guide. A thirty-seven mile 
aun brought us to the border of South Australia ; then another 
seven and we pull up at Tilcha station for a meal, afterwards 
pushing on to Tilcha bore, another twenty miles. . Here we 
find hot. slightly alkaline water gushing from a six inch pipe, 
an jo valuable asset in this dry country, as it runs the Caliabonna 
Creek for nboul eighteen miles. We are now in the sand-hills. 

iy6 Macgillivrav, TriptoN.frN.W. from Byq fun Hill. [ v ^ ,c xxxix. 

all running parallel to one another, and this creek finds its way 
between two of them. It was om intention to push on to 
CaUabonna, but fate ruled otherwise, as the Doc%e gets stuck 
iu trying to moss the creek a few miles below the bore, and 
our energies are occupied till dark in getting it out, so we decide 
to make camp where we a*e. The constant supply of water 
lias freshened up all the trees along the creek and brought up 
many young ones, and it has also made the creek a resort of 
bird-life. Wedge-tailed Eagles, Whistling and Little Eagles, 
Black Kites,. Milvus wiigtanti, Brown Hawks and Kestrels, Crows, 
Corviis bennelti. Miners, Greenies, Mdifhaga fanic-Utata, and 
J Willy Wagtails/' Rhipidura ieucophrys* being well repre- 
sented, Galahs, Cacatua roseicapiUa, Bare-eyed Cockatoos, C 
tnngmfwett Blue Bonnets, PsephoPus xanlhwrhoits, and a few 
Budgerigars and Coclcatiels, but the Many-coloured Parrakeet 
was conspicuous by its absence. The Striated and Red-lored 
Pardalotes were in equal numbers. Broken Hill is about 
the southern and eastern limit of the Kcd-lored Pardalotc. 
Whitefaees were numerous. Flowers were plentiful, Seneao 
Crcgorii and Fldiptcmm polygaixjoUum lining the slopes of 
the sand-hills and the valleys between them. Alonp the tops 
of these hills the Green Sand-hill Pea, Cmialanit Cnnninghmvi, 
and the Yellow, Crol-alarui dissitifolia, were blooming 
profusely in company with 'Myriocephalus Stuarfa Aww$ 
ligulata was. well in flower, and a beautiful object ; it 
;s usually a low, squat bush, but varies with locality. The 
Gidgee disappeared gradually after we left the stony country, 
and was replaced by Hakca leucvptcra, which became more 
and more numerous. 

On the following day we follow a track more m kss obscure, 
but cannot go wrong, as the sand-hill walls us in on our left 
and the creek is on our right We reach Callabonna station 
at about 1 p.m. We are anxious to see the deposit of fossil 
bones, the graveyard of numbers of DiprOtodon and other 
extinct marsupials and birds, from which numbers of speci- 
mens had been unearthed twenty-five years previously by 
the South Australian Museum authorities, from whom t held 
a permit to view but to touch not ; but this we find quite 
unnecessary, as no local personage seems to know where the 
deposit is, and drifting sand has covered all trace of former 
excavations. We have faith, however, in our guides, " Boolka 
Fred" and " Siddown Jimmy," and they take us along a most 
atrociously rough track down to a creek that mnsinto the 
lake, and then point to an island about two miles away in the 
vast expanse of white salt The outlook is desolate in the 
extreme, the lake being surrounded by sand-dunes, the 
elevations being held by samphire bushes, with the intervening 

'Si* J Macgiliivray, Tnptd^.&N.W.pOMHrokt-nhUL ij; 

spaces wind-swept. The greater part of the. lake bed is 
covered with a saline efflorescence, water* intensely blue m 
the centre. With the exception of a few Orange -fronted Chats, 
bird-life is absent from the dimes. We tramp out to the 
island, but find it occupied only by a solitary fox and a few 
Chats. We return to camp on the creek, and are informed by 
out sable guides that the hone deposit is probably on the 
opposite side of .the lake. The Common Mallow, LavaUra 
fAchtia J which grows so profusely and rankJy in m-iny places,, 
they tell us, was one of their principal sources of cordage for 
making the nets fur capturing Emu and Kangaroo. The 
bark and outer woody layer were stripped off, baked in hot 
■ashes for about an hour, then macerated in water till *o(t, aitet 
which the fine white fibres were separated and twisted into 
strands. This plant should be of commercial value for its 
fibre and the ease with which it could be cultivated. 

We retum next morning to the station, and decide to visit 
another part of the lake where the bones were most undoubtedly 
to be found, three guides accompanying us in # waggonette 
and pair of horses. Wc follow the Murnpeowte road, wliicli 
goes north — quite a good road — till we arc directed to turn off 
through a dry, wide blue-bush and cane-grass flat, Crossing 
this, wc disturb several flocks of Grass-Parrots, islcopkcma 
elegans, that were feeding on the ground under rhe blue-bush- 
These flocks consisted mostly of young birds. We go over a 
verv rough rise on which are a" few stunted needle-bushes, 
Hffkea Imcopt&ra, or ^Purrunda'' of the natives, and Dead 
Finish. The Dodge comes to a halt on top, and I wander off 
amongst the bushes. A few Pigeons, Qeyphap* lopkotes, WhHe> 
faces, A pkdocephala kucopsis, Artauius nneveus, and Short- 
billed Crows were the only birds recognized. During ti&jf 
absence from the car, two parrots, answering to the description 
-of the Scarlet-chested Grass- Parrot, Neophcma. splendtda , came 
and sat for some minutes on a small Dead Finish within ten 
yards of the car, They flew off, and, though we searched the 
locality, neither Dr Chenery nor myself caught a glimpse of 
them again. Dr. Chenery followed some Calamanthus in the 
cane-grass, but was not successful m obtaining a specimen. 

Our further search for the fossil bones being without result, 
we return to the road and follow it to a well, and make camp 
for the night. From one of the stunted gums not far from 
our camp we disturb a pair of Spotted Harriers, and hnd their 
nest, containing One egg, placed amongst the leaves at the 
end of a horizontal branch at about 20 feet from the ground. 
Along the bed of the creek were some tine bvsbes of CroMay-ia 
(tdssitiftoru and Swainsona icphrc4yycha t and, in places, quite a 
forest of the Mallow, Lavatera pkbeia, many of the plants being 

i.?8 MacgiUJVRav. TriptoN.&-N.W,iyomB*t>kcnlHU [voi'xxxVx. 

ten feet high. The night was a calm one, beautifully mild and 
moonlit, My son, Ian, and I walked out on to the sand-dunes 
•which surround the lake. These are held together by samphire 
hushes, with drifting sand between, and' befotc us, stretching 
away /or miles, was the white expanse of Callabonna. Not a 
sound broke the silence, though we strained out ears to listen. 
A silence as of the dead brooded over the place ; no mammal or 
bird stirred oj uttered a sound. We could 'not help thinking 
it a fitting resting-place for the remains of the giant marsupials 
and birds who roamed these regions before fertile and well- 
watered hills and valleys gave olace to sand and stones and 

On our way back next day, ~D\\ Chenery and myself left 
the cars tu walk through the flat where we had seen the Grass- 
Parrakeet, N. elcgavs. We disturbed at intervals Orange-fronted 
Chats, Wedge-bills, and White-winged Wrens. Several flocks 
of the parrots were again disturbed, and a few Cinnamon 
Ground-birds, Cmciosoma cinnamomea, Wc tried to obtain 
specimens of a Calamanthus, but th<=t wily little bird eluded all 
our attempts, and remained unidentified My son, Ian, who 
came back to meet us from where the cars waited, reported 
having seen a Wedgebill's nest containing one egg in a blue- 
bush, and flushed a Boobook Owl from its resting-place in the 
cane-grass Wc went back to the station to fill radiators and 
water bags, and take the back road to Tilcha. Many Black 
Kites. Mihn<± migrans, were about the station, and a pair of 
Whitefaces had their nest in the verandah spouting, and weic 
feeding young. Through the. flat before us we pick up the bore 
water, and note many old Hawks' nests, mostly those of Whist- 
ling Eagles and Kites. We disturb a pair of Letter- winged Kites, 
Elantis SKftplus, from their nesting-tree, and stop our ears to 
admire the beautiful colouring of these tare birds a* they fly 
round close above us. In the bright sunlight they appeared to 
be pure white, with a jet-black mark round and behind the eyes, 
and the broad black stripe down the centre on the underside 
of each wing forming, with the .wings bent, the letter W 
which gives the bird its name. The wings are long, and the 
manner of flight is quite unlike that of any other hawk, and 
reminded one of the slow, flapping flight of the larger Terns, 
the wings being raised well above the. horizontal before the 
slow down stroke, a few* of these alternating with a sailing 
flight with widely -outstretched wings, but no separation of 
pinions. The nest was compactly built of fine sticks lined 
with far and leaves, and about a fortnight later contained foor 

Crossing the creek where the bore water ends, wc follow the 
uad back along the south bank of the stream, and between il 

v t f s " t ] MACGiLitVRAy. TriptoN.&N.W fvomBrnhoii }l\il. ) t$ 

and the sand-hill which runs parallel 1o it The creek is. lined 
with Eucalyptus nticrothcca, Cattle-bush, ttctcrodejidrou oltu- 
Jolmn> t and Acae-ia ligulata This Acada and Die Needle-bush, 
Hakc<x lencoptera, are the. principal trees on the flat between the 
creek and sand-hil! The sand-hill is of loose red sand, on 
which a scanty vegetation .grows when the seasons are favour- 
able, as on the occasion of our visit. Besides the two Sand-hiU 
Peas previously mentioned, and the. usual Composites, \vc find 
here occasional patches of Parakeelyah, Calandnma balonnmsts, 
with its thick, watery leaves and heads of glowing reddish- 
puiple flowers. Birds arc numerous along the creek Galahs 
and Bare-eyed Cockatoos are .occupying all available hollows, 
and other nesting birds are Miners, Myzantha flavtguia, Greenies, 
Mdiphagti pcnictllaUi leilavalcnsis, " Willie Wagtails," Viraltinas, 
and Nightjars. Short-billed Crows* nests occur every twenty 
or thirty yards. The. Whistling Eagle was the most numerous 
of the Hawks, then the Black Kite, Mthns imgrvns, with the 
Little Eagle, Hicraelns ficvnutus, third. A Wedge-tailed Eagle 
flew from its nest irt a tree about 500 yards out from the creek, 
but we did not botheT to examine it, and later flushed another 
from a nest on the creek, which contained a finely-marked 
pair o] eggs A pan of Grey Falcons, Fako hypolencus t were 
flushed from a nest about 40 feet op in a gum, but. though 
complete, it did not contain eggs , the birds, which were of a 
beautiful light grey colour, sailed round above us, This is the 
most tractable of our four Falcons when in captivity. 

Dr. Chenery and myself had been walking along the creek, 
and soon after came to where the cars had halted for th^ 
night. After an early breakfast we find, a nest of the 
Black Falcon. F. suhmger, on an old Kites nest which the 
Falcon had commandeered for breeding purposes. This 
contained two downy white chicks, about a week or ten days" 
old A short walk brings us to where a Grey Falcon is seen 
sitting on the edge of her nest, about forty feet up in a gum ; 
this contained four fresh eggs, A Little Eagle's nest placed 
near the top of a fairly thick limb was examined by Dr. Chenery 
and found to contain a finely-marked pair of eggs. This bird 
lives mostly upon jabbits, ^nd. seen along the creek*, appears 
to be a quiet and inoffensive bird , it will, however, kdl other 
birds, and has an evil reputatjon amongst the rest of the avian 
population, who are given to mobbing it mote than they do 
any other hawk, A pair of Biaok Falcons were seen harrying 
a Whistling Eagle, one chasing it out over the sand-hifJs - the 
Eagle, however, returned, and the Falcnn renewed, the attack, 
and, finally clinching, and locked together, the two went down 
in a spiral, screaming as they went, followed by the Falcon':-- 
mate, who came down from a higher plane to his mate's rescue. 

I40 IViACulL-UVJUV, Trip lo N .6- M .W J'rvm Broken Hill . [ Vo Vxxxix. 

We pass scvera) Tea) on the larger hole on the creek \ two pairs 
were caring for young broods. " A bank contained a number 
of Fardatote holes, the Red-lored and Striated being in equal 
numbers in the trees Most of the Brown Hawks were of the 
lighter type. Of water birds, odd lots of Water-Hens, Mxcro- 
trihonyx ventmtis, and Black-fronted Dottrel were disturbed 
at mtavals. Before we come, to the bote itself we flush 
another Grey Falcon from a nest high up on a slender limb, 
and a Little Ragle from her nest not far from the Falcon's, 

After leaving the bore our road runs back between the sand- 
hills for some time, the hills bring farther apart, with a scanty 
scrub of Needle-bush, Mulga, and Dead Finish on the inter- 
vening flat Feeding out from some scrubby patches on the 
sand*h.ilis, Cinnamon Ground-birds are noted at intervals 
along our track. On some of the lower sand-rises we come 
across a fine growth of the Wild Parsnip, DiMscu* glancijolins, 
with Its pale mauve flowers. After leaving Tilcha station wu 
go on to a 5U&I1, dry creek and camp at dark. A. Needle-bush 
near the camp contains nests of the Created Pigeon and Yellow- 
tailed Tit f both birds sitting on eggs, and hi a near washaway 
bank a Red-lored Pardalote had her burrow, with h pair of 
Short-billed Crows feeding their young in a nest about twenty 
feet up in a gum-tree. 

We turn oh near a dam., which has been dedicated to 
"England's patron saint, at light angles to our sand-hills, and 
others that are now ahead of us, ooj objective being Fort 
Grey, a spot in the extreme north-west corner of New South 
Wales, so named by Start in 1845 after the then Governor of 
South Australia, who afterwards became Sir George Grey. 
This spot was Sturt's base for his final struggle to reach the 
centre of Australia in a year of exceptional drought and ex- 
cessive heat — an effort of heroic endeavoui which has never 
been excelled in the annals of Australian exploration. We have 
now to cross the parallel sand-ridges at frequent intervals. 
Some give us. much exercise in pushing or making corduroy 
over ihfi loose sand ; others wc run down to find an easier way 
over where the slope is more gradual or where a sufficient 
vegetation binds the sand- The tops of some of the sand-hslls 
support quite a number of flowering plants., the Yellow Pea. 
Crolalaria dissitiftora, being the most conspicuous, with yellow 
and white composites. Here we see for the first time a trailer, 
Jndigojera hveviJms, with a violet-blue inflorescence, and quite 
a luxuriant growth of the climber Glycine ciandtstina supporting 
itself on th,e hop-bushes, Doilontva viscosa, vai. nUenucthi. On 
a sand-hill nearer St, George we found a veiy beautiful Cassia, 
C- ptenrocarpa; just, coining into flower — trusses of large yelk>w 
flowers and pretty, pinnate green leaves [ the flowers were very 

*« ] M*» A y Trip IqN.& N.W.from Broken Hill. 14! 

sweetly scented, and the bushes about three feet. high- Thb 
shrub dies down to the root in the dry weather and shoots 
up again after good rains. The two desert lovers, Eycmoplnla 
Stxrti and Er&mophiU Duitoni, were fairly common as under- 
iCTub to the Mulga. About ten miles- fiom St. George; we halt 
"by a small lake to fill our radiators. This is Lake Stuart 
named after M'Douall Stuart, who was with Sturt in these 
parts and afterwards was the first man to cross the continent 
from Adelaide to the Northern Territory coast . 

A long run brings us to another dam, where die uumber of 
scattered bones and skeletons of cattle bear evidence of the 
severity ot the last drought. On some of the sand-hills near 
here we admire the dumps of White-wood trees, Atalaya hemi- 
glanca, with their clean trunks and fine bushy heads. Like 
many of the trees of this semi-desert land, these clumps arc all 
connected, by their root systems. Needle- wood is not so 
common here as it was near Callabonna. Birds are scarce — 
a Tew Cinnamon Ground- birds, Whitefaees, Crows, " Willie 
Wagtails/' Ground-Larks, and occasional Orange-faced Chats. 
No Parrots in ttilft scrub except Bluu-Bonnets and Budgerigars. 
The former is holding its own in the struggle for existence, and 
the latter are migratory, and can usually find better feeding- 
grounds in time of drought, though they will sometimes keep 
to a diying watering-place- till every bush surrounding it 
shelters heaps of their dead. 

The presence of Tea-tree, Melaleuca Inchoslachya, in the 
vegetation announces the neighbourhood of "Foit Grey and its 
Lake Pinnaioo. We drive round the edge of the lake to the 
old house, and find no one at home. As darkness has over- 
taken us we ask our dusky guide for a camping-place near 
water, and he,, not knowing that the lake still contains water, 
directs us towards its centre, till the leading car sinks m the 
mud, and the black is not popular during the next two hours 
of perspiring effort which it takes to get it out, Wc pass an 
uncomfortable night, as it is windy and inclined to rain before 
daylight, forcing us to get up and pack our bedding. We soon 
hear Galahs and Bare-eyed Cockatoos clamouring on all sides, 
as they have nesting-hollows in all suitable trees round the: 
hike. Budgerigais are also prospecting dead trees and stumps 
for hollows small enough for their purpose. A few Blue-bonnets 
come to inspect us, and a "nestful of young Magpies are calling 
for their early morning feed. 

Dr. Chenery, Ian, and myself leave out friends to rest whilst 
\vc set out to walk round the lake and get an idea of the* birds 
in the wide margin of box-trees, outside of which is a scrub, 
consisting mostly of tea-trcc As we cioss the dried marginal 
area wu cannot help remarking the sweetly-scented atmosphere, 

143 Macciilivuay, TviptvW&N W from took™ NtV [y%*xxx\x~, 

due, wc find, to a small crucifer, Blcunodta nastnrUotdcs, which 
carpets the gtound. Many Hawks' nests are in the bordering 
box-trees, bat few occupied. A Little Eagle is flushed from one 
of these, and a few yards on we disturb a Tawny Frogmouth 
from a tree next to one in which its mate is sitting cm its nest 
and pair of eggs Many Diamond Doves are calling, and Miners 
and Grecnies arc numerous elsewhere. One Galah's hollow 
contained five hard-set eggs on the usual bed of leaves. A 
Delicate Owi hurriedly leaves a hollow as we pass, and is 
irnmedjately mobbed by the smaller birds. We wander over 
the sand-ridge Which marks the division between gum-trees 
and scrub, and note Red -capped Robins, Mistletoe- biTds, 
Caterpillar-eaters, and Chestnut-tailed Tit- Warblers. Wc 
return to the box margin and' note a Crested Pigeon on its nest 
twenty feet up hi one of these trees, This Pigeon, although 
edible, seems to be holding its own, and all tlirough the back 
country it is, if anything, in increased numbeis, Changes in 
environment do not seem to affect it. On the lake wc note 
Grey Teal, Pink-eared Ducks, and a few Grey Duck, Anas, 
superciliosa, A small. party of Yellow-billed Spoonbills, three 
White-necked Herons, and about twenty Blue Herons. 
Noiophoyx novce-hollandics, are along the margin. A pair of 
Brolgas rise on thcrir wide-spreading wings and go trumpeting 
away. To the Meetlia tribe of aborigines, who roamed these 
parts, they were known as "Cooralko/' in imitation of their 
call. Our vernacular name is a corruption of that in use hy 
the aborigines who at one time lived on the Macquarie, and 
is their version of this bird's call, " Bouialgo.'* 

From a gnarled and ancient box neat the margin of the 
water a Kestrel, Delicate Owl, and Bare-eyed Cockatoo emerge 
from separate hollows. The Hawk has five eggs, the Cockatoo 
three, hut the Owl none. We are next interested hy finding 
the tree, Eucalyptus bicotor, on which Stmt had set his mark, 
Which is overgrown and almost illegible A Government sur- 
veyor has, however, re-marked rht tree, a shield -shaped piece of 
bark having been removed and a broad arrow over " W " and 
" Sturi, F$45i" chiselled into the wood. The tree is in a good 
state of preservation, and two Parrots were utilizing it for 
nesting purposes — a Blue-bonnet and a Budgerigar- We pass 
on and find the timber thinning, and numbers of traces of old 
camp-tires, "with flint chippings, cores, and grinding- stones of 
the blacks Dr Chenery dtaws my attention to a Black 
Vatcori flying from a group of trees ahead in which there are 
four old Hawks' nests. We find, after examining the lot, that 
the fourth an old Kite's nest, contains a fine set of four eggs 
of the 1 r akon Little of interest engages our attention till 
we round the bottom end of the lake, when a Delicate Owl is 

/J^ ] Macg;mivkav, Trip foN.&N.W from Brokm HUL 143 

flushed fi'ufii a bojlow about frf tceji (cet up in a rugged old box- 
rhc hoUo\s, a large one, contained a fine clutch al seven eggs 
on $ bed of woody iicbn? and castings. Incubation was at a 
different stage in each of the eggs, the last laid being Ottltfe 

As tain still thteatened, we made a late afternoon stajt 
back, passing at first through a good deal of stunted Needle-bush, 
tea-tree, and Mulga, until a few mile?, from the lake, where the 
prevalent trees and shrubs are Mulga, Needle- bush, Dead 
finish, Ercmuphilu lungijoha , and Acacia ligwia/o- Acacia 
Murrayana was growing near the lake, hut not yet in flower , 
this is a very fine species with long, narrow phytlodes and a 
beautiful bright yellow inflorescence- We saw it in full bloom 
a year previously on the Cooper, where it grew round the 
Nappa Mcnie homestead. We van <>n to a long plain between 
sand-hdls, but one of our cars had trouble in negotiating a 
gutter, and, as the day was drawing to a close, we find a 
sheltered spot over a sand-hill, and camp for the night. The 
prevalent vegetation round this camp is Mulga, Needle- hush. 
Dead Finish, Acacia Ugulata, Efemophila hngtfolta, Cassia 
fhyllodima, and Cassia SivrH in one of its forms, W)if*.e»wood» 
Cattle-bush, Wild Cherry. Santalwn lanceolatum and Pitto^ 
poruw filntly&rQides ; much dead grass. Wild Parsnip in 
flower, M-ytioeephalus Stuarli, Hdipterum poly gait fjttim, Salsola 
kali, Ptilotm alopccuroidcs, and two species of ZygophyHuni 
— Z. podocm'pns and Z. fruUculosimt. 

Next Morning* after a. good run, the car develops engine 
trouble, and sticks on top of a sand-hill for a while. Along 
tins ridge are many bushes of Ca&sta plcmocaypa and Dodotum 
aUeuuata, with Parakcelya, in full {lower, Wild Parsnip, and 
(he usual Composites. A pair of fledged younii Wedgeb-lk 
are quite confiding, and let us snap them sitting on a dead bush. 
Blue butterflies are here Hitting rapidly about the Muigas, hot 
it is earJy in the season for others, though Da&aida chrysipp-m 
felilui and Papilio Uhaidus are present. In the previous spring, 
summer, and autumn these two species were very' numerous 
throughout the district. The rest of the journey back \% 
uneventful, many nests of the Short-billed Crow being passed, 
and one hest of the Rufous-crowned Babbler examined and 
found to contain young This Babbler keeps to the Mulga 
scrub, whereas its congener, the White-browed Babbler, 
frequents the timbei along the creeks. 

Nearing Yandama we leave the sand and enter the gibber 
country and the region of the Gidgee and Nalya. Acacia mna. 
We heat that the patient near Mount Sturt is seriously Ell, and 
Di, Chenery and myself lumy on to the station and go on 
to see her with Mr. Bartlett.'the owner of the station. It is 

144 Macgillivbav, Tripifi N.&N,W. from firo/un HiU, [v^xxxnc. 

dark when we arrive, and on our way back our lights fail, 
and we Jiavc a little trouble in keeping to thn track. 

Next morning we go on to Mount Poole, and latei to W»l- 
parinka, where wc part with our lady companion and her 
husband, who make the a'eturn journey to the Hill, whereas 
we go on to Tibooburra with the idea of examining, the Bullno 
flooded country. Our road passes through a Gidgec forest for 
many miles, then skirts a gum creek. Two old trees stand out 
from the creek margin. By the road seven Bare-eyed Cockatoos 
leave separate hollows — two from one and five, from the other. 
The country is undulating and very stony We flush a female 
Ashbvia lavisnsis from near the track, but fail to find her nest, 
Nearing Tibooburra, the stones give place first to sandy 
country, supporting a scrub of Mulga i Dead Finish, with 
Kfemophila DitUoni and Needle-wood. The town consists of 
one or two streets laid out through large granite boulders, the 
soil being sandy and auriferous one of the pastimes of the 
inhabitants, being to search the ground for small specks of gold 
whenever rain falls and renders them visible. Unfortunately, 
this is not a lucrative pursuit, as rain only falls at rare 

After a short stay we leave the town, taking a north-easterly 
road through the boulders. Wild-flowers abound between the 
boulders and grow from crevices in the rocks, bunches of 
white-flowering fooloma petrma and the lavender-flowered 
EremopiiUa Frcelingii being the most conspicuous. A little to 
the north of the town a Blood-wood, Eucalyptus termincdis, 
grows, and, in season, is covered with large bunches of con- 
spicuous cream-coloured or rose, flowers The Stmt Pea, 
Clianthus Dampicri, also grows freely in the valleys; the 1921 
spring and summer was a record one for this plant throughout 
the district, acres being covered with its gorgeous bloom? in 
places. About thirty or more coloured variations were 
recorded, varying from pure white through shades of pink, red 
and white, striped, to dark blood-red The seeds of tins pea, 
though small, can wait for a favourable time to germinate, 
sometimes thirty years or more. Naturally, it requires gond 
autumn rains to bring <t up, the plant makes good growth 
through the late autumn, and blossoms in June* and continues 
through the spring months. It will last, under exceptionally 
favourable 1 circumstances,' for four years — that is, when pro- 
tected in u garden. In a state of nature it is usually an 
annual, or, at most, a biennial. 

When we pass out n{ the ranges into open country wild- 
flowers are still plentiful. Sw'aimoiut tephrofrychu in .fine purple 
patches on the drier ground, with yellow and white composites 
covering the rest of it, Our road now runs for about twelve 

tyol Macgillivrav, TnpfoN frN.W-fypw- ftrokw HilL tat 

miles through a line Gidgce forest, the Lrecs growing along 
a creek amongst the gums and out over the hills and Rate that 
border it, The country - becomes mure hilly as we approach 
Mount Wood station, where we puJI up to have tea with Mrs. 
Little, who showed U5 a fjiie fossil bivalve and a section of 
" tree-fern " found on Mount Wood. We cross the creek and 
go on to the shearing shed, where all hands, including the 
owner (Mr. Little), arc busy. Wc get directions, and go on 
through flat country gay with flowering plants, Sit'Ltmsomt 
ptoenmbens covering large areas with its dark purple dowers. 
A beautiful mauve composite with yellow centre, Mmuria 
inugcrnma, grows in large bunches, and is much admired and 
prized by the ladies at Mount Wood for i(s -decorative effect 
We nm by an old yard and deserted public-house, and come 
to the country from which the flood waters of the Bullon have 
subsided ; Ihe cattle tracks in the rnud are now dry, and make 
the going very rough. The SuUoo forms a little water system 
of its own, being separated from those creeks and rivvrs that 
run into the central salt lake by the Grey Range It empties 
itself into large gjttois of lignum country that extends well over 
the New South Wales border, and is there absorbed, further 
to the east the Paroo crosses the border at Hun^erford, and 
runs towards the Darlirig, but is being gradually separated 
from ir, most of its floods being absorbed Hi lignum swamps 
before reaching that river. 

We reach Coonulpie station, where we interview the owner, 
Mr Davies, and his chef as to the extent, and prospects {m 
bird-life in " the waters." We are disappointed, however, on 
being told that the breeding of the water-fowl had ended witb 
the subsidence of the flood water. Next morning we are up 
early. Many Ctows and Kites are about the homestead. 
Acacia sknophyUa grows thickly at the back of the house, 
and supports an abundant growth of Loyantkm txocarpi and 
L. HneophylhiSi the latter being covered with it? round, white, 
fipe> fruits, attracting a number of Mistletoe-birds to the feast. 
These birds show no fear„ and feed eagerly withm two feet of 
rnc Singmg Honey-enters and Greenies were also quite 
numerous, and Fairy Mai-tins were busily constructing their 
spouted mud nests under the verandahs. We go on for about 
three miles and make our camp on 2 water channel by the road 
to the "Adelaide Gate" in the border fence. Many Water- 
hens are about this camp, also Wedge- tailed Eagles, Galah?, 
White-browed Babblers, and Crested Wedgetnlls. The creek 
is bordered with Eucalyptus inicroiheca, Enmcphila bignonicv' 
fi-ot'a, Lignum, Old Man Salt-bush, and smaller plants. After 
pitching WIT tent and putting all our baggage and comestibles 
m it, we all go for a walk towards the cane-grass. This we 

:*6 Macgjluvray. TriptoN.&N WJvomByoktiufiiH. f V oi!*xxxlx. 

enter from the road, and walk through it parallel with one 
another. The result is disappointing, as it is too diy, a lew 
Chats and Allied Wrens being the principal inhabitants. Dr. 
Chx-nery flushed an Amytis, but did not secure a, specimen 
After a long and fruitless search we come out and make for the 
eaeek, and follow it back to the camp. This is well tenanted, 
mostly by the commoner birds, such as Crested Pigeons. 
Diamond Doves, WedgebiJls, Grcenies, Allied Wrens, Giallmas, 
and a few specimens of that glorious singer of the bush, the 
Spiny-cheeked Honey-eater. After a late lunch. Dr. Chenery 
goes back to look up the Amytis, whereas Ian and myself make 
our way down to the lignum. * There IS very little water in 
it, and a)) water-birds have gone, We return to camp before 
dark, and decide to return to Tibooburra on the morrow. 

Early on the following day We are back at Coonulpie, where 
We are shown a big hemispherical piece of sandstone with 
grooves deeply cut into it in varying directions This, wc 
fca.rn, wa - (1 $ed by the natives for sharpening their spears. On 
our way back several young Australian Dottrel are seen near 
the track. These are beautiful little things in down, pale grey, 
slightly rufous down the back, lined and marked with dark 
brown and black in wavy patterns. They flatten themselves 
out on the ground after the manner of many ground-birds, and 
keep perfectly still, and are really very difficult to distinguish 
from their surroundings. We push on to Tibooburra. and, 
after a short rest, resume our journey, arriving in Milparinka 
Jate in the evening. 

Next day we go on our way, but. after passing the bluff 
T)r, Chenery and 1 decide to walk a section of Evelyn Creek, 
Tan taking the car on for a few miles and walking back to meet 
us. This creek is a fairly large one, and welt timbered with 
red gum and box. Numbers of Gaiahs and Bare-eyed 
Cockatoos are nesting, also a few Budgerigars and occasional 
pairs of Ring-necks. A solitary specimen of Acacia far 'nesia >na 
attracts my attention, r-s this is about the southern limit of 
its range. 1 had seen thus shrub in fair numbers on some nf 
the smaller creeks that run into the Cooper We find Ian half- 
way up a box that is growing out from the hank, and from 
which he has flushed a Spotted Hairier. The nest was about 
forty feet up, as usual loosely built of fine twigs and lined with 
leaves and placed on a bushy, horizontal bough : it contained 
four fresh eggs. . 

We resume our journey along the Coally fiats, resplendent 
with purple Swamsonas.'ivhitc and yellow Hehpterums, till 
We enter the sandy country, with its clothing of Mulga. Needle- 
bush, Dead Finish, and Etemophila DnUom\ and under-dress 
at Myriocephalus, Senecio, and Heliptcrum. At Cobham we 

**£ ] Macguxivkay, Trip lu N , & N.tV. /row* fcitofrfftf //*//. 147 

only delay for 3 few minutes, then out of the sand over several 
flats, which were a trial and tribulation to us after rain a year 
previously, to Idana and the stony plains, then into the sand 
again past Fucfcsaddle, to camp ou a box and lignum creek 
about five miles before we come to Bancannia. We decide U> 
look up some lakes and swamps at the back of Bancariuia on 
the following day. We are told there that Bullocky's Swamp 
is getting low, and that all the Swans and other water *fo\vl 
are walking across to Jones's Lake, about a mile from it, with 
tbeii young broods Consequently, wc follow a vety rough 
track to Bullocky Swamp, which still contains a fair amount 
of water, with cane-grass growing in it, hut very little bird-life. 
We pick up a camel pad and follow it to Jones's Lake. On the 
way we come across a pair of Swans walking in the same 
direction with a brood of downy cygnets, Bullocky had 
become too shallow, and accessible to foxes and other enemies, 
and they were making for Jones's Lake, where a larger area of 
deep water would protect the young till able to take to the 
wing. We pull up to examine this lake, and find it very open. 
with a httle box on one side and a patch of hgnum where a 
creek tuns into it. In this we hear the lively song of the 
Keed- Warbler and the plaintive notes of the little Grass-birds. 
Many Teal and a few other ducks are feeding amongst the 
water-weed and rushes. We pick up the camel pad again and 
make our way to Wyalla Lake This is very full, and contains 
much timber standing in water The weather has, however, 
become very threatening, and rain evidently (ailing to the 
south., so we decide to make back to the road before our retreat 
is cut off. We make good progress till near Sandy Creek bore, 
where a heavy shower gives us a difficult track for several 
miles, and delays* our arrival at Fowler's Gap. We replenish 
our water and go on for about five miles before having our 
lunch late in the day. 

The Euriowie hills arc gayer than when we went up, Acaciu 
Ivdcri being now in flower all over them,, the ground being 
carpeted with a brilliant yellow mass of HcUfikmm fiolygali- 
fohum or with the paler yellow of Crasp&dia chrysaiuha) and 
white with Heliptenmi corymbtflora and others. A5 wc emerge 
from these hills we meet a motor party, and are cautioned by 
them to be careful of the next few miles, as a very heavy hail- 
storm had just crossed the track. We soon find this to be 
true, the being banked up under every bush and all the 
water-courses running. We matte eveiy effort to covei as much 
of the road as possible before dark, but the last nine miles is 
in inky darkness, with most of the ground under water. HgW- 
ever, we reach Broken Hill without* any mishap. 


\Viu>-Flower Exhibition —Miss C. C. Carrie, of Lardner, 
writes that the statement on page 82 of the November 
Naturalist that the specimens of Boroma finnMa exhibited 
were collected by the Misses Bingham, Hardie, and Maddock 
at Jindivkk is incorrect, and that the flowers in question were 
collected at Athkme. in quite another direction, by JjBT 
brother, Mr. T. Currie. 

The Mueueu Medal,— This medal, founded in honour of 
Baron von Mueller., and awarded by the Australasian Associa- 
tion for 'the Advancement of Science at its meetings to eminent 
workers in Australian natural science, has this year been 
bestowed on Mr. J. H. Maiden, FJR.S., F.LS., &c, Govern- 
ment Botanist ol' New South Wales and Director of the Sydney 
Botanical Gardens. Mr. Maiden is' well known for his 
splendid contributions to botanical literature, and we feel sure 
the choice will he a popular one throughout Australia. 

South Australian Brown Com. — The Tnmsact-iows of Iho 
Riyal Society of South Australia for 1922 (vol. xlvi.) contain 
a joint paper by Sir Douglas Mawson, D.Sc, and Mr. Frederick 
Chapman, A.L.S., F.R.M.5., on the brown coal deposits of 
Moorlands, situated between Murray Bridge and the Victorian 
border. The deposit appears to cover a considerable area, 
probably the greater part of the great Murray delta of Tertiary 
times, and resembles the Morwell deposit, though, so far as 
known, does not possess the great depth of that formation, 
However, as South Australia is deficient in coal-heanng strata, 
it will probably prove of great commercial value in years to 

The Genus Pitlte-cca. — In continuation of his work on 
the genus Pulto^a, cm extensive genus of the Australian 
Lcguminos«e, Mr JI. B. Williamson, F.L.S., contributes to 
part 1 of vol. xxxv- (n.s ) of the Proceedings of the Royal Society 
of Victoria (Dec , 1922) the third instalment of his revision of 
the genus. In this he deals critically with seventeen species, 
six of which are hitherto undcscribecl. Three of these arc 
Victorian— P. D'AUonii, from NhiH ; P- Readmana t from the 
Grampians, collected by the author in 1907; and P. prolifew; 1 
collected by Miss Sceaney at Carlisle River, 1906, Unfortu- 
nately, according to the Vienna rules of priority, our unique 
5 pecies, P. rosea, F. v. M., of the Grampians, loses its well-known 
name and becomes P. s-ubafyina \ f Druce. The genus ls a difficult 
one, the differences between species being in many cases very 
slight, depending on such particulars as size of calyx lobes, 
bracts, or bracteoles. The paper is illustrated by drawings of 
the new species, 

Che Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No. 11. MARCH 8, 1923. No. 471 


The ordinary monthly meeting of the Club was held at the 
Royal Societ3''s Hall on Monday evening.. 12th February. 1923. 
The president, Mr. C. Dales', B.A tJ F.L.S., occupied (lie 
cliaiv, and about sixty members and visitors were present. 


From Mr. C. French* sen., thanking the Club for his election 
as an honorary life member, and wishing the Club continued 


A report of the excursion to the Botanic Gardens on Satur- 
day, 23rd January., was given by the leader, Mr. E. E. Pescott, 
F.L.S., who said that there had been a large attendance of 
members and friends. A general ramble had been taken 
through the Gardens, and notable trees, &c, pointed out. The 
propagating grounds and houses had also been visited, and 
many interesting plants seen. 

A report of the excursion to Torquay on Saturday-Monday, 
27tli-2uth January, was given by the leader, Mr. F. Chapman, 
A.L.S., who gave a very interesting account of the outing, 
during which a fair number of fossils were collected from the 
limestone cliffs in the vicinity of Bird Rock. The aboriginal 
ovens and shell mounds near Bream Creek had also been 
visited, and the members of the party were much impressed 
by the evidences of human industry displayed in the remains. 
Later he exhibited several lantern slides of incidents of the 

A report of the excursion to Eltham on Saturday, 10th 
February, was given by the leader, Mr. F. E. Wilson, who 
reported a large attendance of members, but, owing to the 
heat, of the day., their reward was not equal to the enthusiasm 
displayed. Insects, on the whole, were scarce, and only some 
of the" commoner species were recorded. 


On a ballot being taken. Miss Maude. MXean, 3x4 Cardigan- 
street, Carlton, and Mr. R. B. Paul, 280 Bourke-street, Mel- 
bout ne, were duly elected as ordinary members of the Club. 


The president said that the committee had decided tr> 
recommend that the seven "original" members remaining on 
the CUih roll -he elected life honorary members of the Club. 
These were Messrs. W. M. Bale, F.R.M.S., F. G. A. Barnard, 

150 Field Naturalist* Club— Pi'oett dings ; fvoi*xxxix 

D. Best. J. E. Dixon, F Pitcher, T. G. Sloanc, and F. Wise- 
would. They had been elected in May or June, 1880, and 
had kept up continuous membership of the Club ever since 
He. thought*, it well that these members should be honoured for 
their faithfulness to the Club while still Alive and taking an 
active interest in its -work, rather than that their memory 
should be honoured later on. He moved to that effect The. 
motion was seconded by Mr. E. E. Pescott, F.L.S., and carried 

Messrs. F- G. A. Barnard and F. Pitcher returned thanks on 
their own behalf and on behalf of their fellow ".oiiginal" 
members for the honour conferred upon them, aud hoped they 
might be Jong spared to attend meetings of the Club. 

The president extended a hearty welcome to Mr. A. N 
Lewis, of Hobart, a member and past president of the Tas- 
manian Field Naturalists' Club, Hobart. Mr. Lewis briefly 
responded, and thanked the meeting for its welcome. 


r. By Mr. A. L. Scott, entitled "Notes of a Geologist in 
New Zealand/' 

The author said that he did not claim to be a geologist, but 
lie proposed to illustrate, by means of lantern slides, some 
notes made during a recent holiday of a couple of mouths iu 
New Zealand. Dealing with the hot lake district of the North 
Island and with Mount Cook and the surrounding mountains 
in the South Island, he gave' some account of the geological 
features as seen by visitors. 

2. By Mr- Chas Oke, entitled " Notes on Victorian Chlamy- 
dopsini (Colcoptera), with Descriptions of New Species." 

The author gave some general notes on a number of beetles 
which live principally in ants' nests — for what reason is not really 
understood. Several descriptions of new species were taken 
as read. 


Mr, E. E. Pescott, F,L.S-> drew attention to Mr. T, Green's 
exhibit of flowers, of the rare Mint-bush, Prostanthera Walleri, 
from Buffalo Mountains, found only there, on Mount Kosciusko, 
and on Mount Ellery, in East Gippsland. 

Mr, F- G- A. Barnard drew attention to a fresh specimen of 
the rare fungus, Pnlyporus mylittcs, commonly known as 
" Native Bread." This had developed from a specimen of the 
sclerotium exhibited by Mr. A. G Brown at the previous 
monthly meeting of the Club. He also gave some account of 
the early history "of this fungus. 

Mr. H. B. Williamson, FX.S., said that he had grown the 
fungus from damaged portions of the sclerotinrn. 

w&] Fwhl Naturalists'- Club — Procadiu^i. 151 


By Mr. F. G- A Barnard. — •Fructification of fungus, PolyporuM 
myhiirc, commonly known js " Native Bread"; also egg-cup 
carved from the sckrotium, lent by Mr. D. M Alpine, 

By Mr. F. Chapman, A L.S. — Photographs and lantern slides 
of Torquay and Bream Creek ; sltclls of Succinea au&frctlis, 
Fcrussac, from charcoal stack at Bream Creek ; barnacles from 
shore pools at Rocky Point (Balanus and Seapellum); Pvnna 
gracilis, a fossiL PoJyzoan. from limestone slab f Miocene) at 
Spring Cieelc, Torquay ; rolled fragments of travertin limestone 

By Mr, C. French, jum — Fine specimens of remarkable gall 
making coccids (scale insects), Apionwrpha strowbylosa, male 
and female, from Diamond Creek, Victoria ; also a specimen 
of the so-called Crested Grasshopper, Alectoria supcrba, a rather 
rare and remarkable insect, from Benalla, Victoria. 

By Mi*. T. Green, — Flowers of Prostanthe.ra Waltcri, F. v, M. ( 
a rare Mint- bush, from Mount Buffalo. 

By Mr. A. E-. Keep. — Wallaby and wombat bones from 
aboriginal kilchen middens on sand dunes near Bream Creak, 
Torquay ; fossil corals and shells from ancient sea mat reef, 
in polyzoal limes! one rock (Miocene period), from Torquay 
beach, near Spring Creek. 

By Mr, C. Oke. — Insects from Eltham excursion ; a specimen 
of CJdamydopsis pet-i-pennis, n. sp., under microscope, in illus- 
tiation of paper. 

By Mr. A- E. Rodda. — Growing fern, Grammitis ntUfoiia, 
Koiofoit* Cre^k, near Biaybrook. 

By Mr. A. L. Scott. — Maps antl photographs in hirthei illus- 
tration fj£ his paper 

By Mr. A, J, Tadgell and Mr. A. G. Hooke. — Twenty-one 
species of Alpine flowers and ferns, fresh, from Mount Bogung, 
Victoria — Blcchmmi penna -marina {Lomann alpina), Brachy* 
come Tadgellii, Eucalyptus umacea (bark, fruit, and flowers), 
Exocarpus nam* (fruit and flowers), HcYpoUnon nflv&~ze<aUvn&*&* 
DidiscttS kumilis, Veroyika serpyilifolia, Thcly^iUra vettaw (in 
splugnum), Aciphylla glaciahs, A. s%mplicij(dia, % Podolvpis longt- 
pedata (rolntsta), Senccio peclituUm, Ccltnisia longt folia, 
Geniiona sn.xom (mountain form), Helichrysum rosmarinij'oihtin. 
H. rosniarinifoliniJt t var. ItnUfotmtn, H, baccharoides, B&ckeu 
Cunntana, Colohanihns Billardtm, Polypodium attstralc 
(mountain form), Trisiluin snbspicatum, Scleranlhus mniaroides, 
Ofcarta yaiiiulQ$HX 4 var. communis (syn. Olcaria rricoidte), rare. 

By Mr, L, Thorn.— Case containing four species of Emperor 
moths — viz., Anthvreea eucalypti and A. hclma, from Victoria, 
A. simplex and A.janctta, from Queensland; A- cucalvpti and 
A. janelta showing considerable variation in the markings. 

By Mr, H, B. Williamson.— Flying phalanger, picked up dead 
at T)andenon(J. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 


LS~l Jzxcufxioit 'to Nar-Nar-Goon, [ V oi! xxxjx. 


(Abridged ) 
The v)Hit to the country lying io the north of Nar NaT Goon, 
on Saturday, 18th November, was very enjoyable owing to the 
weather experienced and the huge variety of flowers met with, 
leguminous shrubs, &c, being very plentiful. Among these 
were Pulkmcp-a, Hahy Bu*h-Peu, Pfalviebmm fottnofium> 
Handsome Flat-Pea, Ditlwyma f.onbunda. Crowded Parrot-Pea, 
Gnm-phofobiwn Hxcgelh, Dwarf Wedge-Pea, and Sphirrnlobiiwi 
:)imiheum, Lcattes-s Globe-Pea. After parsing a sawmill wo 
were attracted by a young forest of Messmate iEwuilvptuf* 
■Miquit) saplings , these were at least forty feet in, height, and, 
wc were informed, were only about six years old — an evidence 
of the rapid growth of trees in this district. Several other 
species of eucalypti were noted about here. Descending into 
swampy country, near Dingo Qeek, some fee young plants of 
PHltcntta Weindorferi, one of the handsomest species of this 
genus, were seen. The Forked Sundew, Drosant binaia, docked 
a wet bank: with its delicate white flowers, while the bright 
blue flowers of Lobelia gihlwa and the golden yellow of CoWerim 
ovaia added colour to the scerie. Altogether over eighty 
species were seen in bloom, indicating that m a late spring good 
collections of flowering plants could be made in the district. — 
J. W. Audas. . 

Six members went to Upwey, on the southern slopes of the 
Dandonong Ranges, by the early train on Saturday, 16th 
December, On leaving the station wc crossed 'the hue and 
entered a patch of swampy ground not far from the railway 
Here there were odd branches of J.eptuspermum still out in 
.lower. On these were a few common beetles, mostly Stigmodera 
— S. erythropterii, 5. trcnala, arid S amtrahts%(? — and MordeUids. 
A few Hymcnoptera were flying around, principally Thynnid 
wasps and Ichneumon, flies, though one very pretty saw-fly 
was seen. Numerous specimens of the Mountain Brown Butter- 
fly, EpincphUe (ibeona t were on the wing, and two or three Wfcre 
eaught. VVe followed a narrow track up the hill and came to 
a most enchanting spot, where the Euralyptus trees were 
growing closely together and the ground was covered with 
beautiful gn±en grass. Here it was remarkable the number 
of orb-spinning spiders that had spread their webs. No doubt 
they appreciated this nice, quiet, shady spot, but not for itself ; 
it is merely cupboard-love, I>ecause it is places like this that 
hush flies and moths delight in — hence the spiders. Some of 
these latter were very brightly coloured, one in particuiav 
that attracted attention being a pretty shade of buff, silvery 

^•j £nwmtm ttr Upwey-. 1 5 j 

along the sides, lemon on top, with maioon markings. Heiv 
we also obtained three specimen* of a Pterostyhs, winch, it is 
thought, may be new to science. Continuing our way, wt» 
Crossed the creek and ascended a little further up the- hill. It 
was then decided to work towards a good spot of which the 
leader knew Collecting and observing a few insects as wc 
went/ we just wandered on, and seemed to arrive at nowhere 
in particular, till the ladies declared it was lunch time. This 
proved tu be the chance to look for small things, and sojtu? 
interesting little insects were seen. Included Among tlie latter 
was a very small Staphylinid beetle ; it is smaller than the 
head of a "lillikm/' and under the microscope appears rather 
like a Conosoma with large bristles on its antennae and 
alxJomeu. . It is black, with a reddish 'tail." On the gum* 
trees were numerous examples of that gaily-coloured spider 
Niiod-smns bicolcr. This is of a pretty shade of blue, with 
pink or red (the colour varies), and is apparently quite harmless, 
though its colours put it in the alleged 'danger" class. The 
males have a peculiarly-shaped pedipalp, and these are well 
worth a close inspection. As some of Die party wanted to 
catch an Daily tram, wc all decided to walk back towards the 
main road. Under a gum-tree wc found six: spikes of tin: 
Potato Orchid, Gaslrodia scsamoide-** , one spike had twenty-five 
flowers and bud* ou it. From some blackberry bushes growiny 
near the track we obtained three species of Skipper butterflies, 
all well -known species. On the flat, near the main toad, a 
spike of a Cryptostylis was noticed. As it was only in bud 
it was passed over j but on second thought* it was decided to 
dig it up, as it appeared to be a little different from the ordinary 
form. Seven days later it came out, and it proved to be C. 
Icpbochila, a rather rare orchid, After a further shore ramble 
up the hills we made out way back to the station in time to 
catch the last train home, well satisfied with a pleasant day's 
outing. 1 am indebted to the late Mr. J. R. Tovey for the 
identification of Cryplostylis kfiotinla. This was almost 
certainly the last determination he made, as it was long afttr 
closing time -when I left his office., and he passed away the same 
evening. — Cuas. Oke. 

This year the Foundation Day excursion was arranged for 
Torquay, a lenality not hitherto visited by a Club excursion. 
Torquay, well known for the profusion of its Tertiary fossils, 
is situated nn the western shores of Bass Strait, about sixty 
miles from town (via GccJong). A small patty, including two 
ladies, left town by the mid-day train on Saturday, 27th January, 
and by 2.30 p.m. the luggage had been, left at the respective 

154 Jlvcursion to Torquay, [ra?xxx!x. 

boarding establishments, and wc had turned out Steps- towards 
the cliff section in tlie diction of Bird Rock Passing fliO 
golf links and over Spring Creek, it was noticed bow low the 
sand-dunes were compared with kumer years, before tire 
murrain (jrass was planted, though the grass was really 
responsible for the retention of the dimes such as they arc at 
present A Inn if the foreshore the old dune, of Pleistocene age, 
was observed, where it lies surmounted by the more recent 
sand-dunes, the former being burdened by percolation and 
deposition of carbonate of time, and showing occasional layers 
of travertin where there happened to be springs- in the vicinity 
Passing Spiing Creek mouth r now barred up by blown sand, 
the Middle Tertiary limestone was ^cen m tumbled blocks. 
They wens eagurly scrutinized for the remains of braeVuopnds 
(Miigastila, I crcbraiclta, and 1 crehruUdim). for echinoids 
(ScntMUna, Linmi-ut, and En-palapn), and polyzoa (Ponihi, 
Adeoua; and the profuse and multiform Ccllcpora). The latter 
sometimes constitutes the bulk of. the polyzoal rock, and, as 
the zoaria was frequently branched and massive, this gave, the 
appearance of a raft of matted twigs. We may thus picture 
how like a thick scrub the sca-bed must have looked when the 
polyzoai limestone was Conning at the bottom of the fairly deep 
and comparatively clear sea of the Janjiikian of this phase 
of patseogcography AJl the members of the party were con- 
sin ted to the ways of geologists on the spot, and h;urmiei& and 
penknives were put to the best use in extracting medals of 
n cation and boxing lhem far safe carriage. 'This intense 
interest in the fossils accounted for the time slipping past 
unnoticed, and the retain for tea had to be made with record 

Joined by a visitor to the district, wjjo showed hnn^li to be 
an ardent geologist, we started early the next day for a uuitt 
stroll into the country and along the shore towaids the Bird 
Rock section Turning off near the No. i Torquay oil-wells 
bonrrg ai the Jan Juc Creek, two of the paity crossed to the 
Sheoak Gully and down the Fishermen's Steps* where they met 
the remainder after their scramble over fallen rocks and stretches 
cf sand. As far as a rising tide would allow, some interesting 
fossils were secured from the Spring Creek Ledge, the Trtgonia 
and coral bodt; r and i\ve- Spindirosira bed From the latter our 
friend Mr. Parr was so fortunate as to find two examples of this 
very rare fossil a few days before the party arrived, and members 
were shown the actual places where they were fnunrl. A welcome 
rest was taken in Sheoak Gully, where Mr. Barnard said a iew 
words about the plants met with, and wp exchanged notes 
while the billy boiled. Proceeding south-westerly along the 
top of the clifK Rocky Point was reached. Here wc descended 
to the beach and peeied into the beautiful rock pools that, aie 

SjJ»1 Excursion to 'lm-qua\'. 155 

revealed ta curious terrestrial bipeds twice in the dity. But 
it requires an Alfred Noyes to do justice to this scene: — 

" Bright as j. fallen fragment of thn slcy, 

Mid ilicl*-cnciu>jte<J rocks the si.m-pool (dlpur, 
Classing the sunset clouds in its cJeaj heart, 
A <n19.ll, ench&otod world eiiwallod a|Airl 
In diamond mystery. 
Content with its own 'dreams, its own strict -?.onc 
Of urchin woods, its fairy bights and bars, 
IU daisy-dibked anemones and ro3e-Xeatnered Stars** 1 

Here we saw strange-looking barnacles (Balanus and Scatfictlvm) 
and maroon-coloured anemones., with flecks of pure sky-blue 
at (he tentacle base \ whilst the seaweeds were here in profusion 
— a gcrttly undulating flora of a beautiful marine rock-garden. 
It H along the cliff-section 011 this Point that the soapy clay 
bauds can ht traced as soft undercut layers beneath salient 
le,dgcs of hard, iron-stained limestone ; they arc on the same 
horizon as at Zeally Bay, "about five miles away to the north- 
east, representing two legs of the same anticline. This band 
of marl is rich in Tbtaminifera in a beautiful state of preserva- 
tion, as the leader discovered in 1903. One of tlie younger 
members collected a few pounds of this material to work through 
at his leisure, and this will keep him occupied for many evening*. 
The fossils p;*rticulaily numerous here are the echinoids, several 
of which were obtained ; and tins h the classic spot where Dr, 
T. S. Hall found Ins fine specimen of tire Patagonum shark 
tooth, Carcharoides, now to be seen in the National Museum, 
The return to the township was made over the old clitf road, 
the high-level gravels with quartzite — evidence of a much 
older liver system 1 ' — being noticed by the way. 

Monday morning was devoted to a ramble along the shore 
to near the mouth of Bream Creek. The objective was the 
sand-hills, where the marram grass has not yet quite spoiled 
the wonderful wind effects in remoulding" tlw beautiful lull 
forms, where cirques, mounds, slides, and ripples can be studied 
with advantage. The beach along this route proved very 
barren in mollusean life, only Smins analinua and Maclr\t 
r itf usee n.s (several isolated valves) being noted. Two fair-sized 
" gnmmies '' (Ccsiracum or 11 tiler odonha) were lying stranded, 
in fresh condition, on the foreshore. In the middle distance 
was seen what looked like a piece of wreckage with a row of 
rusty hook-nails projecting from it in a serried line \ but, on 
approaching the spot, the apparent ironwork moved away s|\ 
line formation, and revealed itself as a body of Cormorants, 
which had been resting after a fish dinner. As we approached 
the dunes the abundance of the Aboriginal shell mounds 
impressed itself on one. Where the sand-blows had uncovered 
large areas, the surface of the ground, as one member lemarked. 
resembled in the distance a .daisy field, with tho nacreous 

tj6 Excursion h Torquay. [voT'xxxix. 

white of the Turbo shells (fig. I) glistening in the son In one or 
two instances blackfeliows* ovens were seen to pet lection, with 
the blackened stones, chiefly limestone and basalt, lying in 
fairly regular circles on a slightly elevated mound. A travertin 
ledge is here exposed, which apparently dates back to the cild 
dune formations of the corresponding exposures of Sorrento 
and Warrtiamhool. Portions of this travertin had broken away, 
and. probably by wind erosion and rolhng action, had formed 
rounded masses of the sue of a cricket ball. The force of the 
wind is so great as to roll up cchmoiHs in their fresh state from 
the beach, the genera Hdiociditris and Ainblypnettsus both 
being apparently represented. What was perhaps the most 
remarkable of these phases of this sand-dune formation which we 
saw was a stack of blackened sand (fig. 2) standing up by reason 
of it* superior hardness in a hollowed area in front of the great 
dune- That here it was once more swampy and overgrown 
with vegetation was shown by the numerous shells of Suca'nca 
auslratis, Ferussac, found in the sand of the hard stack 
mentioned. A shell of the hclicoid Laoma penvtensis. Cox, sp. ? 
was also found with the Succinea. This evidence, together with 
that of the destruction of the tca-trcc, under which the blacks 
must have formerly camped, gives to this tribe, at all events, 
a fair antiquity, for the immediate surroundings arc now quite 
bare and sand-coveted- TW* part id our excursion gave us 
•juite a different aspect of coast scenery, and famed a fitting 
close to our short visit to Torquay. After lunch we spent a profit- 
able hour on the Rocky Beach portion of the foreshore, returning 
to Gcclong in good time to catch the 5.55 tram to town. 

It may be of interest to future visitors to have a list of the 
seaweeds which I collected about twenty years ago at Torquay, 
and whiclt have been lately named for me by our esteemed 
fellow-member and high authority on thw group, Mr. A. H. S- 
Lucas, M.A., B.Sc. . — Ph^ophyce.*: (Brown Seaweed?) — 
Cyxtopkora BrOwnii % J. Ag., C. plalylobkini (Mcrt.), J. Ag., 
C. nkrodexa (Lab ), j Ag., Cystoptwra, sp , Melanthalia 
obtusata (Lab.), J. Ag., Seirococcus axillaris (R. Br.), Grev., 
Zutiaria Turnmcma. J. Ag. CHLOKOi'HYCii/fc (Green Seaweeds). 
— Canferpa Mueller i/Sond. Rhqdophvcejs (Red' Seaweeds}. — 
Acrotylus- amlrali$< J. Ag., BaUia caUiiricha (Ag,), Mont., 
Callophyllis Laniberih (Turn.), Grev., Canlum laciniata, Harv., 
Coraltina Cuvuri, Lamour , Dctisea pulchra (Grev, ), Mont. , 
Halvpleg'Mtt Prcissii, Sind., Hypnea, sp., Melobesia patcna. 
Hook, and Harv Minwspora Gn$th$iouic$ (Sond ). De Toni 
Phacelncarpus BillanUeri (Mert ), J. Ag., Plocamtwrn Mert^nsii 
(Grev.). Harv,. Pierodndia fucida (R, Br.). J Ag., Uhabdonia 
coccmea, Harv.. H, nigrescms, Harv,. Khodymcnui iittstratis, 
Sond., Stmotlaiia llarvcyana, J. Ag This uV. could doubtless- 
be considerably augmented by. further eotlecting. 



» » ■ : 

Plate hi. 

F. C. photo. 

F. C. photo. 

*'"7l Excursion tn Torquay. j$j 

• t«t 

lam indebted to Mr F. C, A. Barnard for the {blfotftrig notes 
on the. botany and entomology i*i the trip He says: — *' The 
botany of the Torquay excursion does not calf for any extended 
account. Of comse, the end of January is not the time f->i 
a great variety of flowering plants to lie found in bloom, the 
most prominent were trie Small-flowered Tea-tree, Melaleuca 
parvi flora, and the Sweet Bursaria, Bursaria- spmosa. The 
former occurred on the tops of the cbffs along the shore, while 
the Bursaria was generally seen further inland. The Golden 
Wattle, Acacia pyonuntha, with here and there the Varnish 
Wattle, A. vernicifltia, seems to have covered most of the 
country around the township. It still remains in considerable 
numbers, and should form a pleasant sight in tire early spring. 
Other shrubs near the coast were the Common Correa, Corye« 
speciosfl, which assumed an ornamental form somewhat 
different to that occurring at Sandringham, and Correa afba. 
which was in bloom, bearing star-shaped flowers resembling 
an Eriostemon. Other coastal shrubs were Styphelia richea, 
on which a few white wax-like fruits still remained, and Lasio- 

gialum Behrii, which hears pink, solitary blooms in the spring 
uring a ramble towards the oil borings and Point Addis more 
wooded country was seen, with gums, Silver Wattles, Casuarinas. 
and Native Cherries. Of the former, the Messmate, E. ohliqm, 
was in bloom in several places. Here a rather unfamiliar shrub. 
TJumiasia pctatocalyx- (Stcrculiacea?), was met with in bloom, 
and occasionally in the almost prostrate vegetation were 
flowering plants of the Native Heath. Epacris imprcsui (pink). 
The Cranberry, Aitroloma himiifusa, was also found in bloom. 
Cryptandra vexilijcra, Oleariu ( .4 stcr) axillaris, Comcsptmna 
pojygaloides, Sc&vola microcarpa, Erythraa att$ttali$ t and Hdi- 
chrysitm apictdalum were other small plants found in bloom. 
Numerous introduced plants were seen, of which a grass, 
Lxgurus oviitua, Hare's Tail Grass, was both conspicuous^ and 

" Emomoiogv. — Insects were well represented during our 
outings by the common house-fly, or one very like it, which 
followed us* in places by the thousand, and March flies, otherwise 
few insects were seen ; though the Bursaria was looked over in 
several places, only a ladybird was seen on it. Two or three 
specimens of the Wood Brown Butterfly, He&ronynipha nteropc. 
were all the lepidoptexa noted,. but a fine orthoptcrous insect 
uf the grasshopper family, with pale-coloured body and long 
antennre, Apottechus imicolor, Br., Long-tinrned Locust, Was 
secured, and presented to the National Museum." 

Tlvz party returned to town on the Monday evening, well 
pleased with then short visit to such an interesting locality, 
regretting that it wa? so fat from town. — P. Citafman. 

US Chapman, Casiafa Fossil Sm- Urchin. [vnT^.vsiN. 


Bv PKicDEKiCK Chapman, A.L.S. 

IntrodIiCTokv. -The chief interest of this shtut note lies ia 
the occurrence of an undoubted marine fossil in tbp. Rtd Sands 
covering the Nillumbik peneplain at Studlcy Park. These 
sands have been hitherto regarded as purely fresh* water or 
sub-aerial accumulations ; and, further than "this, the present 
discovery of a cast of a Kahrnnan sea-urchin helps to decide 
the age of these Red Sands as Lower Pliocene, and belonging 
to the same scries as the main part of the Beaumaris clifts and 
(he Brighton ironstone beds. 

Description. — The specimen under notice is a cast of the 
test of a spatangoid sea-urchin, in a whitish or slightly 
ferruginous sandstone, composed of rounded and suhangular 
quarts grains. The internal impressions of (he amhulacral 
grooves, due to their slight projection within the test, are seen 
in this cast as distinct furrows. The cast oE the test agrees 
ill the main with Lavenia, and, in fact, is the only Kalhnnan 
genus to which it shows any resemblance. The test must 
have been subjected to some compression during fossili/ation, 
as the Cast is only slightly convex aborally At "present the 
-specimen is split, in two along the lines which indicate the 
anterior and left posterior furrows The left anterior groove 
is twisted out of its proper angle some 25 degrees, which fttfght 
easily have happened through crushing : this groove, is bordered 
by rather definite lines, and agrees with the. lines seen nn the 
edge of the ambulacrum mentioned. The right anterior 
ambulacra) groove is curved at its normal angle, dipping steeply 
down to the apical region, and carried over to the amhitus. 
The crack which was induced along the left arubulacral groove 
is developed along one SwlC nf the arnhulacral area. The right 
posterior ambulacrum is marked out by an irregular sulcus, 
probably the junction line o? the pairs of plates forming the 

On the oral side the cast is nearly flat, but rounder! at the 
ambitus. The peristomal depression is indicated not only by 
a hollowing of the surface, but the margins, feebly ridged, arc 
teen both at the left and right, where the left anterior and left 
posterior and the right anterior sjnd posterior ambulacra 
respectively meet. 

CONCLUSION'S- — There are, to my mind, sufficient indications 
to show that the furrows, general shape, and depressions on 
the fossil cast are not accidental, but due to the Conner presence 
of an echinoicl test surrounding the sandy inatnx, and that the 
balance of evidence is in favour of the genus Loxinna, 

Detailed microscopic examination of these sands, especially 


March, 1923. 

Plate iv. 


Oral aspect. 


photo, by Hiss 1. Crispin, ha. 

*£•'] ChapmaS\ Cast of a Fossil Seu-lhchift. 159 

some- samples obtained for me l>y Mi. H, Preutioc, has shown 
the presence of fresh-water sponge spicules, such as have already 
been ionnd ia other localities in the; same Red (Ralimnan) 
Sands, as at BaJwyn (hy myself) and at Canterbury (by Mt. 
N- Benporath). 

Judging from this evidence, we may inicr that the above cast 
indicates a close proximity to tli« inaiine shore-line-,, and that 
the spicules may have been, at this locality, washed into the 
littoral accumulation Tioin higher and swampy ground, 

Occurrence.— The above fossil was found at the sand-pit 
above StudJey Park during Prof. Skeats's excursion of Part J 
geology students in 1917. 

I would here twpress my sincere thanks to Prof, SkeaLs for 
the opportunity of examining and describing this very inter- 
esting fossil ; aho to Miss Irene Cresph), B.A „ for so kindly 
taking the photograph of the section where the fossil cast was 

Polypokus MYLiTTVE. — With reference to my exhibit at 

to-night's meeting of the fungus Polypinus vtylittts, Cooke and 
Massee, it is perhaps worth while calling attcntiou ta the 
mystery which for so many years sui rounded this fungus, or, 
rather, the absence oi the fungus. For fifty years or so the 
substance known as Native or Black-fellows' Bread had been 
discussed, but no definite conclusion had been come to regarding 
it until October, 1892, when Dr. M. C. Coulee, the well-known 
mycologist, announced Ijj the Gardeners* Chronicle that at last 
the complete plant had been received, and that he intended to 
name it as Polyporus myliUm. Xhnt specimen was reported 
to have come from South Australia, hut there is no doubt that 
it was a specimen sent from Victoria by Mis. Martm, better 
known in the early days of our Club as Miss F. M. Campbell, 
an ardent fungus collector. In May, 1004. oui late member, 
Mr, H\ T Tisdall, read a paper on the subject (V%d. Nal., xxi ., 
p. 56), stating lhat in 1SS4 he received a sackful of Native Bread 
from a friend at Rosedale (Gippsland). These he tested in 
various ways to see if they w r ere really edible, but could make 
nothing of them, so they weie put away in a sort of cellar he 
had dug in the hillside at his house in Walhalla. Going to the 
cellar some months afterwards, he was surprised to find that 
some of the "bread" had developed a "parasitic" 31'Gwth 
resembling a fungus which, he considered, belonged to the genus 
Polyporus, and as such exhibited drawings, &c, at the Club 
meeting of nth November, 1S85 (VicL Ncd. t vol. ii , pp. 94, 
109, Jan., 1886), and expressed his intention 0/ sending speci- 
mens to Dr. Cooke. This, according to Mr. D. M'Alpine in 
an article in the Naturalist for August, 1904 (vol, xxi., p 59), 
was the first undoubted notice of the fructification of the 

Mylitta,* as it had been known, and "MY. Tisdall was (he first 
person to recognise it as a Polyporus and not a Mylitta, it 
having been supposed to he a member of the truffle family. 
It was scientifically described by Dr Cooke in Grcvtilea for 
December,. 1892. Mr. M* Alpine lias kindly forwarded mc a 
copy of a letter received by him in January, 1905. from Sir 
William Thistietou-Dyer, Director of tbe Royal Botanic 
Gardens.. Kcw, London, in which he acknowledges a copy of 
Mr M'Alpinc's aiticle on the subject in the Journal of Agri- 
culture, Victoria, for November, 1904, and says: — " Un- 
fortunately, Mrs. Martin's specimen, ou which Polyporm 
mylitta (sic) was founded, and which was therefore the type, was 
returned to her at her request. We have no specimen at Kew, 
and would be most grateful to you if you could procure us one. 
We have plenty of old specimens of the sclerotium, but none 
of the Polyporus, cither separately or attached." Prom this 
note it will* be seen that Mr. Tisdalt must have failed to carry 
out his intention of sending specimens to Kew m 18S6, or he 
would have been recorded as the first sender- However, Mr. 
M' Alpine filled the gap at Kew, which is acknowledged in a. 
ietter dated Kew. 4th March, 1905. Mr. M* Alpine says, in 
response to my application to him for information about this 
rare fungus: — "When keen on the hunt for specimens of 
Native Bread \ found them most plentiful at Emerald, in the 
nursery of the late Mr. Nobelius. I was able to get sackfuls 
of the sclerotta, and, as they were about the consistency of 
cheese when freshly gathered. I was able to CSTVQ out various 
articles, such as pipes, teaspoons, egg-cups. &C I have often 
thought since that disabled returned soldiers might manu- 
facture out of this substance various kinds of genuine Aus- 
tralian curios, for which there ought to be a ready sale/' He 
forwarded as an exhibit an egg-cup which had been cut o\tt 
as suggested, making a very useful article It is so bard now 
that one. can hardly make an impression on it with a sharp 
pen-knife It seems to me that the fungus may be more 
common than is usually supposed, as from its mode of growth 
it might often be gathered, even by a field naturalist, without 
any suspicion that it was attached by perhaps a rather long 
stem to the underground substance known as Native Bread. 
The specimen exhibited to-night grew from a broken sclerotium 
which was soft when I got it, and was put on a shelf as a curio. 
I did not happen to notice the growth, which is of velvety 
appearance and lemon-coloured, for about a fortnight after- 
ward*, so whether it grew while the mass was soft, or after it 
bad bardened, 1 cannot say As it is so rare, it is my intention 
to hand the specimen to the Nation a i Herbarium, which, I 
understand, doe* not possess a specimen.— F. G. A. Barnahd. 
rath February. 1923. 

•Tito Tefcrence 111 CooVe's "Australian Fungi " {1892) <s— "1351, 
XfyliUiJ amtr&lis, Berkeley — spores uultuo<^\•u.' , 

the Uictorian naturalist. 

Vol. XXXIX.— No, 12. APRIL 5, 1923. - No. 472. 


The ordinary monthly meeting was held at the Royal Society's 
Hall on Monday evening, 12th March, 1923. 

The- president, Mr. C. Daley, B.A., F.L.S., occupied the 
chair, and about fifty members and visitors were present. 


From Mr. D. Best, thanking the Club for his election as an 
honorary life member, but declining the honour, as he felt that 
the Club requited all the subscribing members it could obtain- 
He therefore desired to become a regular life member of the 
Club, and enclosed a cheque for five pounds as Ids membership 

From Mi\ W. M. Bala, F.R.M.S., and Mr. F. Wisewould, 
thanking the Club for the honour done them in being elected 
honorary life membeis. 


A report of the excursion to Black Rock on Saturday, 124th 
February, was given by the leader, Mr. J. Stkkland, who said 
that, though favoured by a beautiful day *and a low tide at 
the right rime, there was just sufficient sea raised by the wind 
to prevent any satisfactory work being done among the rocks. 
A search was made, however, for interesting objects out of 
reach of the waves, when quite an interesting series of objects 
was met with and discussed among those present, 


On a ballot taang taken, Mr. Willoughby Curtois, J Erskine- 
strcet, Malvern ; Mr. Allan T. Latham, 26 Scott-street, St, 
Kilda ; Mr. A N. Lewis, " Wallington," Hotham-street, East 
Melbourne ; Mr. V. Miller, High-street, St Kilda j Mr. Walter J. 
Parr. r8 Bokhara -road, Caulneld ; Mr, C f F. Argyll-Saxby, 
M.A ( , F.R.G.S., rS2 Collins-street, Melbourne ; and Mr. 
Joseph H. Woodward, 1 Rathdown-stiec-t, Carlton, were duly 
elected ordinary "members of the Club. 


Mr. A. E. Keep referred to some correspondence that had 
passed between the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to 
Animals, Mr. Latham, M.H.R., and the Minister tor Trade 
and Customs, relative to the exportation of native birds. The 
Minister had given an assurance that as soon as possible the 
export of most of our native* birds would cease. 

tfo Field Naturalists' Clnb—Protndingm \j/$E$&fa 

Mr. C. Oke drew attention to the fact that more than one 
expedition .was exploring in Australia for natural history 
purposes. He considered that the scientific societies of Aus* 
tralia should combine and urge the Commonwealth Government 
to prohibit the removal from Australia of any type of a new 
species, or, if they be removed for comparison with other speci- 
mens in other countries, that a guarantee be given that they 
would be returned to Australia. 

papers read. 

i. By Mr. H. B. Williamson, F.L.S.. entitled "Our Alpine 

This took the form of an illustrated lecture, in which the 
author directed attention to the more notable plants growing 
at altitudes of 5,000-6,000 feet in North-Eastern Victoria, the 
character of the scenery of the high table-lands, and the appear- 
ance of the vegetation with which they are clothed. 

2. By Mr, F, Chapman, A.L.S., entitled "On Concretionary 
Limestones in General and on Pebbles from Lake Omeo in 

The author gave some account of the formation of these 
concretions. The nodules, on being sliced and prepared for 
rui'jroscopic examination, usually exhibit a nucleus, with 
the general structure composed of minute organisms. He 
illustrated his remarks by means of luntcrn slides. 

3. By Mr. J. C. Goudic, entitled "Notes on the Coleoptera 
of North-West Victoria, Part IX, " 

The author dealt with the genus Heteronyx of the family 
Scarabidje and those representatives of the Elateridse, Rhipido- 
eerita;, Dasctllida:, and Malacordermidas, which he had observed 
in the Sea Lake district, giving brief notes as to their occurrence, 


Dr. Geo. Home, V.D., drew attention to the uses of some 
aboriginal implements exhibited from the Lake*Eyre district, 
South Australia. 

Mr, A. J. Tadgell called attention to three^ additions to the 
flora of Victoria made by him during a recent visit to- Mount 
Bogong, North-East Victoria, and an extension of habitat of 
a Grampian plant. The new plants were a fern; Cystopleris 
Jragihs, Bernh , , syn. Woodsiti Icelo-vitcns. Brittle Bladder- 
fern .; Erig&ran pappoolwonia, var. oblongaius, Benth- ; and Cafcx 
pyrenaica, var., syn. C. cvphalotes, Jtound-heaided 
Sedge * T while Olearia ramulosus, var. communis, syn. 0, ericoidcs l 
now found on Mount Bogong, "had previously been recorded 
only from tire Grampians. . He also called attention to a 

VM Fidd NalufAlitti* Club — Proceedings. 163 

specimen of Epilohimn twijertifolium, Alpine Willow-herb, 
from a height uf about 6,300 feet, showing the cushion form 
nf the plant and the very narrow twisted seed-vessels. 


Mr. C. Oke said that when recently examining an ants' nest 
at Eltham he was surprised to see an ant come out of one of 
the entrances to the nest with a small shell, which it deposited 
on the mound outside. On looking round he found two iftgfjB 
examples of the same shell. Thinking they might be a fossil 
form, he submitted them to Mr. F. Chapman, A L.S., who 
recognized them as Diola hxuf.a t A- Adam, and thought they 
had probably reached the locality in " shell grit," frequently 
given to fowls. 


By Mr. F. Chapman, A.L.S. — Concretionary nodules from 
Lake Omeo, collected by Mr. C. Daley, F.LS. ; concretionary 
nodules from Tarcoola, South Australia, from National 
Museum collection ; also concretionary limestone from Pinnaroo, 
Victoria, obtained from Mallee Bore No. 7 at 4-8 feet from 
surface, and micro-photographs in illustration of paper. 

By Mr. F, Cucimore. — Fossil teeth, of sharks and rays, from 
the Table Cape (Janjukian) beds, Tasmania. 

By Miss M. Guerin. — Salt from the Pink Lakes, Linga, North- 
West Mallee, Victoria ;. this salt has a distinctly pink tinge, easily 
visible in daylight. 

By Dr. G. Home, V.D. — Stone implements used by the abor- 
iginals of the Lake Eyre district, South Australia, including 
scrapers used for fine work ; drills ; knives, mounted, and used 
for cutting off dead men's hair : hollow bone, in which two 
flies are enclosed, and then buried, in order to keep away flies, 
which arc a terrible pest in the locality. 

By Mr. C. Oke. — Marine shells, Diola .laula, A, Adam, found 
in meat ants' nest near Eltham. 

By Mr. A. L. Scott. — Pitchstone from Ngongataka, Rotorua, . 
New Zealand The acid magma cooled before the various 
minerals had time to develop, the result being a dark, brittle 
glass. Some specimens crumble with even careful handling. 

By Mr. J. Sticktand. — A fine colony of hydrozoa attached 
to a seaweed ; Acorn Shells upon the carapace of a crab ; and 
foraminiferous sand, collected on Black Rock excursion 

By Mr. A. J, Tadgell. — Plants from Mount. Bogoug, referred 
to under ** Remarks on Exhibits.' 1 

By Mc H. B. Williamson, F.L.S.— Dried plants from Bogong 
High Plains, &c. in illustration of paper. 

After the usual conversazione the meeting terminated. 

Jfti Excursion to Black Rods. [voiTxxxix. 


Ten* or twelve members of the Club visited Black Rock on 
the afternoon of Saturday, 34th February. As the day was 
beautifully tine and the tide well out, condition seemed aU 
that could be desired ; but unfortunately a stiti breeze made 
the sea so rough that no work could be done on the seaward 
side of the rocks. However, -we placed a liberal interpretation 
upon our commission to study shore-life, and bestowed con- 
siderable attention upon organisms found upon the shore, 
although not dwellers thcie. At the end of the afternoon we 
had found representatives of most, of the lower forms of marine 
life. To commence with the lowest group, the Protozoa, a 
tuft of fine filamentous seaweed growing in a tide pool furnished 
two ot three species, including many specimens of the beautiful 
little loricate form Cothurni*, while a collection of white 
sediment from the ripple marks on the -sand-banks was found 
to contain forarns. A higher group, the Porifeva, was repre- 
sented by the skeletal remains of quite a variety of horny 
-sponges. The phylum Ccelen terata comprises those animals 
which may tjB described as being little more than digestive sacs 
surrounded by tentacles. This phylum had examples in the 
shape of the beautiful hydrozoou of the Plumularia type 
(exhibited on the tabic) and numerous sea anemones and corals 
The hydroidfc are ol particular interest, supplying as they do 
many examples of alternation of generation of a remarkable 
type- The bydriform persons are asexual, while the sexual 
generation is of the form of a medusa, ov jelly-fish- Several 
species of Crustaceans (Yfefee noted, such as sand-hoppers and 
crabs. The diminutive tail part or abdomen of the latter, 
it was pointed out, constituted them examples, of the Bracliyura. 
Ot short -tailed crustaceans, as distinguished from the Macnvran 
or long-tailed section, such as the crayfish. That extremely 
interesting crustacean, the. Acorn Shell, which is sometimes to 
he had. was sought for in vain. These might easily be taken 
to be molluscs, but m reality they belong to the Entomostracan 
division of the Crustacea. In their juvenile stage they are 
free swimmers, but as age advances they settle down, attaching 
themselves by their heads, and form shells, from which they 
extend their feet to catch food. An example of these will be 
seen on the table which have built, their residences uport the 
carapace of a crab, doubtless without asking permission. 
"Worms were plentiful. Spirorhis, which builds a tiny spiral 
tube of almost microscopic dimensions, was noted, while 
another beautiful tube-dweller, Serpula, was, of course, in 
evidence everywhere. A univalve mollusc was found with its 
shell completely covered with the tubes of the little, builder 
just mentioned. On being placed in a bottle of water the 

: \'f l \-] Excursion to Bfaok ttooh* 1G5 

molJasc began its travels, while the Serpuiae extended their 
plume-like gills, to the pleasure of all beholders. Another 

much larger polycruete worm, in the shape of a species of Nereis 
(probably), was also found. Polyzoa cur Bryozoa had one- 
example. These are classed as worms by some authorities, 
and as allied to molluscs by others, being called Molluscoidea. 
Molluscs, of course, were plentiful, including the curious form 
Chiton, which has its shell divided, into eight plates, which 
gives it a certain amount of flexibility. Of the interesting 
groups Tunieata and Edvinodermata no representatives were 
found on this occasion. Had there been rough weather a day 
qv two before our visit took place, probably numerous tunicates 
would have been thrown up on the beach, It seems to us that 
the number and variety of murine organisms cu be taken on the 
shore near Melbourne is very much. less than in days gone by. 
Pholas, that interesting rock-boring mollusc, and some others 
ire have not found for many years. Marauders in the shape 
of thousands of holiday-makers are doubtless to blame. — 
J, Sxacra.ANP. ' _ 


'' Australian Science Abstracts ■" — The third number of 
this journal (for February, 1023), published quarterly by the 
Australian National Research Council, is to hand It contains 
brief abstracts of papers published in various Australian societies' 
proceedings, &c„ during the quarter, embracing agriculture, 
botany, chemistry, geology, mining, pathology, veterinary 
science, zoology, &c, and should prove very useful to workers 
both in Australia and elsewhere The subscription price is 
4s. per annum It js obtainable from the editor-in-chief. Dr. 
A. B. Walkom, l).Sc, M Ithaca-road, Elizabeth Bay, Svducy, 

Fokests Commission of Victoria. — The third annual report 
of the commission (or year 1921-2 has the somewhat unique 
distinction of being printed on paper manufactured from pulp 
containing 67 per cent, soda pulp, made from Victorian timbers 
— viz., 'Mountain Ash, E rcgnans, Woolly-butt, E. (lelcgetemis, 
Messmate, E.obliqua — and 3.3 per cent, imported "sulphide" 
pulp. The paper \vas* -supplied by the Institute of Science and 
Industry* which has been conducting experiments in the manu- 
facture of paper from Australian woods at the mills of the 
Australian Paper and Pulp Co. Ltd., Fyansford, near Gcelong, 
these experiments being subsidized by the Forests Commission 
of Victoria. The paper seems to be of excellent quality and 
good colour. The report states - that one million and a quarter 
conifers were planted out during 1921, with about 50,000 
cucalypts and other trees 

i60 Hardy, The Measuring of Tall Trees. [yjlxxxhc 

' ("With Plate.) 

By A D. Hardy ..> 

[Redd before the Field Naturalists' Club of Victoria } t6fh jan. t 19230 

Owing to misstatements and doubtful records recurring in 
print, I am again bringing under your notice the subject of 
tall trees — this time chiefly with special reference to the 
method and difficulty 0/ obtaining their heights. 

It is unfortunate for students of natural science generally, 
and trcc-lovcrs m particular, that science periodicals are little 
read by other than members of the societies which produce 
them. Technical treatment of the various subjects is at tunes 
quite necessary, hut unless there is a fair amount of journalistic 
leaven in the literary dough the volumes, bound or unbound, 
rest solidly on the library shelves. When one -seeks through 
such a medium to render innocuous the errors far-flung by 
means of flamboyant articles in popular journals and magazines 
so readily obtainable at the local news agency or railway 
bookstall — magazines attractively gotten up and profusely 
illustrated, so as to be transferred from baud to hand until 
too tattered for use — the handicap is severe- But we are soiely 
smitten when official -or semi-official publications — with title 
and general tone suggesting a sense of responsibility, and with 
a wide circulation both in the country oi origin and abroad — 
get a good start with erroneous or doubtful information ; 01* 
we are left dissatisfied with 'the omission of reference to data 
or its verification. 

In a paper entitled H The Tall Trees of Australia/' n?ad 
before this Club in March, iyi3 (Vict. NaL, xxxv,, p, 46, July, 
:gi8), 1 drew attention to the fact that our tall tree height 
records were those of trees that had long since passed away, 
cither through the action of incendiaries or through the 
subordination of sentiment in the interests, of forest 
utilization, and that wc had a poor showing against the 
preserved giants of California, many of which, however, are on 
private property, and may be converted into lumber. 

Here are two extracts — the first from the letter of one of 
my American correspondents soon after his return from a visit 
to Australia, the second from a widely-circulated forestry 
periodical (tn both cases the italics are mine) ;— 

(i) " "Refoiting to your article on the big trer-.s of the world, 
1. wonder if you saw an article in the Natio?nit (U.S.) Geographic 
Magazine for July, 1909— 'The Tallest Tree that Grows,' by 
Egerton R. Young, describing the eucalypts of Australia, in 

^yxJ'J Hardy, The Measuring of Tall Trees; 167 

which he stales that specimens of Eucalyptus amygdalina ■ 
reach a height of 480 feet ! He says specimens over 400 j%*< art* 
frequently found (if so t I should like to find Hbie), I would 1* 
glad to have your' comment on this article if you can find a. 
copy. 1 ' In a later issue of the same journal (for December, 
1916) Prof. H. E. Gregory ignores the references quoted above 
and gives 346 feet as the highest recorded Australian tree. 
Cornthwaite's measurement of 375 feet had, however, not been 
published at the, time. 

(2) By Mr. Detwiler, June, 1916 :^~" The average diameter 
of a fully-developed Sequoia is 25 feet. ... At least one 
Sequoia has been cut down whose diameter was almost 31 feel.. 

. . - That tree was 302 feet in height, The average 
height is 275 feet, but a ftw attain 350 to 400 feet. Still, the 
Sequoia is not the tallest tree in the world, though it is by far 
the largest or mast massive. The Eucalypius trees of Australia 
exceed it m height, but are more blender." (Mtur's "500 feci; 
high are not uncommon" for Sequoia ^eems thus discounted, 
but I should be glad of verification of Detwiler % !i 400 feet/') 

The circulation of the former magazine is easily 100 times. 
greater than that of the Victorian Naturalist — probably i.oou 
times as great in America. It may seem a little incongruous 
that at least two American writers should conscientiously 
endeavour to hand the prize for tall trees, so coveted by their 
countrymen, to Australia, and that an Australian should 
disclaim our right to accept it. True, I have been reproached 
by many for " belittling the £uealypt/ J but it would be unwise 
to allow well-meaning protagonists of the Sequoias to so 
advertise fictitious heights for Eucalyptus regnans that, when 
called upon -some day to "produce the goods/' we should bo 
unable to point to anything much over 300 feet. In thft 
absence of a disclaimer, our silence might be taken as equivalent 
to consent. 

Let me briefly refer to four trees (now gone into lumbet, 
palings, or smoke) of excessive height, whose dimensions were 
obtained by measurers of undoubted ability: trees of the 
splendid past, all of the species Eucalyptus regnans (Mountain 
Ash), and all Victorians. 

Reliable Records of Heights. 

1. Mount Daudenong ; G. W. Robinson, C.E, ; 342 feet to- 

broken g-inch diameter top { estimated total height, 
360 feet. 

2. Tborpdale, Gippsiand ; G, Comthwaitc, L.S. ; 375 feet. 

5. Olungolah, Otway Mountains ; Colac Sbire Engineer } 320 
feet to the broken top. 

* £. regwmff.— A..D* H. 

J68 Hardy, The Measuring 0} Tall [v«*xxxix. 

4. Mount Saw Baw, Cippsland ; Cunningham, L.S., Pierce, C-E. ; 

326 feet 1 inch (the apparently abstud " r inch" being 

due to exact mathematical calculation, and points io the 

meticulous care of the surveyors in recording). 

1 purposely omit reference to bulk, girth, &e.,\as it is the 

height measurement and its difficulty that I am bringing under 

notice this evening, hoping that members and others whom 

my hints, may reach will exercise due care 111 ascertaining, and 

caution in publishing figures that would be of interest not only 

in Australia, hut in other countries. 

Method of Measurement. 

Nothing less than a theodolite and 1/16 inch steel tape con- 
trolled by a person certified as competent to use them is a 
satisfying condition in this matter, since the tallest tree record 
is the subject of international competition, with the United 
States slightly Jn the lead, and the difference between the 
points ultimately gained by the contestants, whichever 
succeeds, may be very small. The rigidly-set theodolite and 
a steel tape long enough to reach from the instturnent to the 
tpefc — that is, a five-chain tape to reach between the vertical 
axes of instrument and tree, with a vertical angle of 45 degrees 
ur thereabouts employed — give ideal mechanical conditions ; 
hut in densely-forested mountainous country the carrying of 
such a heavy load requires much enthusiasm on the part of 
the measurer, or a considerable survey fee- However, we 
remember the recipe for "jugged hare" — *' First catch your 
hare." The search for the tall eucalypt may be done with a 
clinometer and tape, There are various other handy instru- 
ments, such as the hypsometer, dendromctcr.. and contrivances 
of various sorts, all more or less inadequate. In the hands 
of one experienced in its vagaries and its use, the aneroid 
barometer might be used on a steep slope, provided the upper 
station were of even altitude with the tree top \ but it 15 
difficult to read less than 5-fecl differences, and in any case 
an allowance of 3 per cent, to 5 per cent, or more of error for 
short-height intervals puts this instrument out of court for 
our purpose. 

J am not conversant with the special aneroid used by Aber- 
crombie for the mnasurement of heights of ocean waves, but, 
as it indicated differences of Iron* 1 to 2 feet, such an instrument 
might be used for tall trees. Another method theoretically 
possible, but almost impracticable, would be the use of the, 
Dumpy level, by which an ascending or descending seiies of 
sectional heights could he obtained, giving in the aggregate 
the height of the tree; but this would involve a tremendous* 
amount of clearing, and, further, the chance of disturbing the 


April, 1923, 

Plate v. 


A giant cucalypt, E. regnans, formerly standing near the junction of Perrin's 

and Sassafras Creeks, Dandenong Ranges. 

Hardy, The Measuring 0/ Tall Trees. 


instrument at any of the many Stations required between the 
adjustment and the first observation, or between comple- 
mentary observations, owing to the difficulty m obtaining 
rigidity for the tripod of secure footing for the operator, dis- 
qualifies this method also. 

Let us suppose that our spies have reported the locality of. 
a tree, the like pf which has never been heard of. Incredulous,: 
though not without cause, we decline to burden ourselves with 
unnecessary impedimenta, and approach the big vegetable 
with .axe, steel tape, clinometer, pocket book and pencil; and 
perhaps the essentials of a temporary camp have to be packed- 
and carried. 1 Arrived^ at or near the tree, we find,, in all likeli- 
hood, that it stands amid a dense lower story of the forest 
flora jjerhaps reaching 40 feet in height, and comprising. Musk/ 
Hazel, Christmas-bush/ Blanket -bush, Stinkwood, Blackwood, 
and with Correa, Clematis, Lyonsia, , wire-grass, and fern com-' 
pacting the ground cover, ,: . , ; 

This is well illustrated in the accompanying ;plate; which 
shows " The Baron," r a tall tree which at; one lime grew in 
the Dandenorig Ranges,'. :nekr the junction of Perriu's. attd 
Sassafras- Creeks, whoso height was recorded at -219 feet 9 
inches to the' "broken top. 1 am* indebted to the Forest 
Commission for permission to nrake use of thus illustrations 

As we cannot see top and bottom . of such a tree .at 'the 

Fig, I 

tick . if thr ymuHti 11 /*»>■/, fhf 

rr tflJVifm /A*J fl C /> hmjcr / 
/<«« h&j&ftt f>? few ffaitBc / 
f) rr/t/iftfr/rf in ftt{ ftpaWMW. 
tfitr tw frf.tyytVMi'A^, /M 



. .. 

. ' ' t 

same time, we get to work with the axe, or, if wc have had 
previous experience, several axes, Having cleared a nanow 
fane for visibility " and footway Cor drainage, we next 


Hardy, The Mficmmng of Tatt Tu&s. 

r Vici.Ktt. 

I Vol. XXXIX, 

set about measuring the vertical angle and the base line. 
To measure the angle seems .simplicity itself, and is so with 
an instrument in perfect adjustment, properly set and levelled, 
if we can see what we want. This is just where the main 
difficulty comes in. By means of a few diagrams I hope to 
demonstrate that to exactly measure the height of a tall, old 
eutalypt is almost impracticable with ordinary surveying 
methods and appliances, and from, what I have seen of old 
Sequoias in -photographs the remark applies to that genus also. 
Theoretically, we obtain the ratio of a tight-angled triangle. 
of which we measure the base and compute the perpendicular, 
which latter, under ideal conditions, coincides with the axis 
of the tree ; but the coincidence rarely if ever happens, the 
chances being more than too to i that the ground is sloping 
in the most convenient sighting position, and that the tree-top 
is not exactly over the bottom. So the measurement of a 
lower as well as an upper angle is. necessary, as well as 
much manoeuvring and some computing to obtain the 
theoretical summit of the tree's axis, the length of base 
to be measured to correspond with the top of a symmetrical 
but leaning tree, or to correct for an observation to a point 
neither the physical top nor theoretical top, but a twig or 
branch end, the only sighting point available (see figures 
t and 2, angles BAc, BAC, or BAe). 

lttt/fi.. C tttiittf ifttUtlfc fan* A. 

4 «**W , Me Unyrflf of fa* *?"*&,' 
*r*j/e ft A r ' a vstd *'M /<V 

Surfure *f J«Vl*-W. 

J* 'lit o*frrf 

If with clinometer and tape, and with due precautions, we 
find that the tree is apparently over 300 feet, it is wotth while 
to return later with a theodolite, If 1 we remember 1 that 
i degree of difference in a vertical angle of about 43° mean* 3.5 
in 100 units of lineal measurement, ot ( say, 10 feet in the 
height of a 300-foot tree, we will exercise e\Heme care in 
setting up the instrument, and this care is a moral obligation 
if we are out to break previous reeorrls or secure others worthy 
of preservation and to withstand criticism 1 By circu in- 
spection we may to some extent choose a better point d'appui, 



Hardy, The Measuring af Tall Trees. 


and so eliminate part of the error due to eccentricity of the 
tree-top, and the balance may be reduced by a supplementary 
observation at right angles to the first to obtain the distance 
Cc or Ce (figure i) respectively as the tree leans to or from 
the first station of observation, for correction of the base 
measurement, or by farther computation of the small triangle 
at top of tree arrive at further data for correction of the height. 
If you imagine the rectilinear part of figure 2 applied to 
a tree such as a River Red Gum, Eucalyptus rosiyata, the 
trouble in sighting the top of a tree of other than pyramidal 
habit will be apparent. 

Now, I have pointed out only some of the principal difficulties 
— viz., locating the tree, clearing the site, centering the top. 
obtaining a secure footing for the theodolite in the spongy 
mulch of many years' accumulation of rotted leaf, twig, and 
bark, all soft, damp, and yielding in that shaded place. 

Alternatively, on a steep hillside, with obstacles in the way 
of lateral attack, we might locate, by the trial and error method, 
a spot on the mountain side opposite the top of the tree for 
the levelled telescope, and then by depression obtain (i) the 
vertical angle measured downwards, and (2) the length by 
drainage between the vertical axes of the theodolite and the 
tree at its base, thus providing data for a different computation 
(figure 3), in which the sine of the angle CAB is used. 

Having heard of some of the difficulties supposititipusly 
encountered on the site, you will, I feel sure, hear with interest 
an account by a backwoodsman who guided a survey party to 
a tree on Baw 13aw. Mr. Dowey, now an officer of thu 

!/- Hardy, 7k& Measuring of Tall hets. [v^XXXtx 

Forests Commission of Victoria, was then engaged in paling 
splitting m the Gippsland forest. From the story which he 
kindly put in writing for inc a few years ago the following is 
extracted '. — " Myself and brother, accom panted by Messrs. 
Cunningham and Pierce (surveyor and photographer), started 
from Neerim early one June morning in Lhe year j#$%, 
Crossing the Latrobe River, we travelled twelve miles up the 
ranges (Baw Baw). The country was at. that time covered 
with thick Stinkwood* and Horizontal Scruh-t We took with 
us a light lunch (expecting to be back the same night), a fairly 
large camera, and some ' slashers." Reaching the Mountain 
Ash belt late in the evening, wc found nearly two feet of snow 
covering the ground ; the altitude about 3,000 feet. It. being 
u early night, we decided to make the best of matters and 
camp. We had no covering of any kind and no food. Setting 
fire to an old hollow shell, we sat or stood round the fire till 
daylight. The cold was intense. We found a tree c$ose (0 
our camp and took the measurements. (Later, when the belt 
was opened up, I saw much higher trees.) Starting back down 
the mountain* Pierce, who had lately come from England, was 
getting very exhausted with the night's exposure, and we each 
had to assist him on the weary journey back, reaching Messrs. 
Ross's selection about dark, Everyone was about done. This 
particular belt of Mountain Ash contained about 300 acres, 
and was named by paling splitters 'New Turkey/ Messrs. 
Ross treated us very kindly. 1 have not seen the two gentle- 
men (Cunningham and Pierce) .Since, but I am quite sure that 
both, .if alive, will never forget their experiences on that 
occasion." Mr. Dowey naively adds : — " This belt of 
Mountain A^-h was opened up by paling splitters (self included) 
some three years later, and turned out one of the best belts of 
timber in that mountain country. The rxuHet.ilar tree that 
was measured was split up for palings, and turned out about 
0,000 Six-fcets." 

Now a remark or two as to estimating— not guessing- By 
this 1 mean a rough result obtained without instruments. The 
pencil method employed by landscape, painters and other 
artists to obtain proportion is applicable to inconsidej able- 
heights where precision is not essential. Where the height is 
great and the result, desired is . to be near the -mark, the 
endeavour is defeated by the fact that in raising the pencil 
hand there is described an arc which, the higher the hand goes, 
is, if the pencil be kept at right angles to the line of *ight, 
swung until, if continued, it is in a line with die zenith, and 
all intermediate positions are proportionately productive of 
error. The pencil cannot be kept with axis transverse to lirte 
H Zicrux Smithiu f Correct Lnwtcnciano. 

A ig»i'] Hardy, The Measuring of Tall Trw - 173 

of sight and tit same time parallel with axis of the tree, and 
if kept parallel is seen more and more obliquely with each 
successive vertical section of th£ true measured, the increasing 
error, being in excess, gives too tall a tree. 

Stepping or Pacing the. Length of a Fallen Tret 1 . — I was told 
that this is " as easy as falling ott a log " ; but It is not easy to 
fall off a log deliberately — Jet anyone try it. Even surveyors, 
who are daily relying on accuracy in pacing to locate old pegs, 
&c, would not claim accuracy greater than 2 per cent., or 
substantiate the claim if made, even on level land. Imagine, 
then, the stepping on a slope littered with the original tUbris 
of the forest floor, and with the tangle and canopy of the 
fallen giant added. Such a task is easily performed by one in 
an office chair, or seated on a fence rail, by means of a vivid 
but treacherous imagination- Recently I had an opportunity 
of watching a number of men, who had gathered from various 
mountain sawmills in the locality, competing at holiday sports, 
One event was the stepping of 66 feet (1 chain's length). Each 
contestant stepped his twenty-two yards and thrust a long 
nail into the ground. At the finish the standing nails were 
distributed much like bowls on a green, with the "kitty" 
absent. When the objective point was located by tape 
measurement it was found to be about midway between the 
longs and the shorts, whitfi together extended over 15 feet. 
What sort of tree heights would the short-steppers, who pre- 
dominated in proportion 5 : 3, return conscientiously enough 
from a like effort to obtain three hundred feet of tree length 
Ofl bad footway 3 The contestants were men of mixed 
nationality and of varying age. 

In my earlier article 1 did not state or imply doubt as to the 
good faith of recorders of phenomenal measurements, but 
rather questioned their methods or deplored their over- 
credulity in listening to others. In most cases the information 
was second ox thud hand. I would rather accept a "bush man's 
statement that a tree in one locality was taller than another 
elsewhere than attach undue importance to its being so many 
feet high, and wc troy note Mr. Dowey's statement that tic 
subsequently saw much taller trees (than the one measured 
and recorded as 326 fr-et)* jn that locality. 

Convergence of opinions of old bushmen, such as cattlemen, 
splitters, tin-mining fossickers, &c, and surveyors, leads one 
to believe that the move in 1S88 to secure big tree measure- 
ments came too late, the tallest trees having been already 
converted into palings. Our great grandchildren may have a 
remote chance of seeing what our grandfathers saw if sufficient 

* A th&tuit view of this tree was given in the Gum Trte for June 193,1, 
lroiu a negative 111 tru- possession of the Forest Comrni^ioaers. 

r?4 , Hakdy. The Measuring oj Tift Tree*. [vuilxxxix. 

areas be held m reserve (or the growth and development of 
trees in favourable localities. Eucalyptus regnans continues 
its upward growth after it is capable of yielding merchantable 
timber, and the unsympathetic individual, who can he found 
not oniv in the splitters' tent, the graziers' homestead, or the 
sawminers' camp> but also in higher place?, should be warned 
"by hs — the people, the owners of the trees — to keep sacrilegious 
hands off such magnificent specimens of the Creators work 

Perhaps 1 may be thought maudlin in the opinion of some folk 
when I. express oi harbour the feeling that when a tree of over 
300 feet describes an aw of the landscape, first with an ominous 
cracking and rending of fibres at the cut stump, then with a 
-.igh above that becomes (with the tree's descent) the sound 
of a hurricane wind, and next the tearing and crashing through 
the undergrowth that ends in a great smashing blow on the 
ground and a bounce up of a few feet, perhaps, before all is 
quiet save for xht fluttering of the'glossy leaves of the twig tips 
for a moment longer — then it seems that murder has been 
committed. The awful silence which follows in the forest is 
broken by the sound of axe and saw dismembering the carcass, 
the boards from which may presently provide a dancing floor 
or a coffin for one's self. We kill the ov and the sheep foi food, 
leather, and wool, and we rear them for such ; we asphyxiate 
Or pole-axe the useless dog and cat, either to put them out of 
Lheir misery 01* to prevent a public nuisance or a menace to 
our health ; but we do not, utilitarians though we be, stick a 
knife into the pet sheep's throat nor poison the old dog except 
for pity's sake Out sentiment disallows h, Is it only the 
;u*ti:>t— ^ptctic or photographic — or the poet, the naturalist, and 
other such " cranks" that will strive for the protection of and 
decry the destruction of these gigantic forest growths ? 

We have heard a great deal in the past of the stiivtng for the 
'almighty dollar/' but we live m a glass house, and should 
avoid stone- throwing ; there is such a thing as the almighty 
pound sterling, (or a Mirplui*age of which some folk would 
sacrifice their souls. Dollars or no dollars, our American cousins 
can " produce the goods ,J when asked to point out their giants. 
What can we do in return but point to axe cliips or burnt 
stump ashes and sny r " There was a great tree ! I remember, &c." 
nr ptoduce a photograph, or a copy of the Victorian Naturalist, 
the Cum ZVft&or an old Leader oi Australasian, showing the 
long-deceased "Big Ben" or "Uncle Sam." We can even 
produce a photograph of part of ''King Edward VII ," and 
show that it was So feet round at ig feet and 122 feet at the 

If w6 will not measure and treasure for ourselves, at least 
let us reserve the material necessary for the enthusiasm, enjoy- 

Ajril.i Harpy, The Measuring of latt Trees r?5 

merit, and interest of future generations of men more appreci- 
ative surely, than ourselves. I 3m not, of course, referring to 
legitimate and economic forest -work, but to the unnecessary 
kilting of the great and beautiful in select places. 

» The Gold Coast, West Africa.— The director of the Gold 
Coast Geological Survey, Mr. A. E. Kitson, C.M.G., O.B.E., in 
his report for 19-21, recently to hand, states that, while no dis- 
covery of outstanding value has been made, steady progress in 
determining the geological features of the Colony is being 
accomplished, notwithstanding the difficulties of the climate, &£. 
Included in the staff is Mr. 0. A, L, Whttelaw, also a former 
member of the Victorian Geological Survey staff. 

. A Fern New for Victoria.— During a recent trip to Mount 
Bogong, Mr. A. J. TadgeJl collected a fern growing among the 
rocks near the summit which proved to be C ystoptena fntgilis, 
Bernh. This fern has been recorded from Tasmania and New 
South Wales, and, like several other alpine plants, the con- 
necting locality, Victoria, is now recorded. Bentham's descrip- 
tion of the genus is: — Delicate ferns, limited to the colder 
mountainous regions of both hemispheres. Son small, circular, 
on under surface, enclosed when young in a thin globular 
membnine which opens into a cup. The description of the 
species is; — Root-stock creeping, fronds tufted, in general 
outline oblong lanceolate, twice pinnate, stalks slender without 
scales, segments lanceolate, deeply piituatifld, lower pinnate 
lobes obtuse. Fronds four to eight inches. This fern is known 
as the ** Brittle Bladder-ferr\," and was formerly listed as 
Woodsia litlo-vircns. It is cosmopolitan in its occurrence. 
always at high altitude. 

" EtMNCONDir." — In 1895 "Henry Goldsmith" (Mr. Arm- 
strong), a solicitor of Kyneton. published an Australian novel 
under the above title, ' Euancondit/' being the name of the. 
heroine of the book, When in. Kynetou recently I found that 
this was the accepted vernacular name in the district for t]\n 
Fairy Waxflowcr, Eriostcmon obovalis, and on making inquiry 
was told that it was the aboriginal name for that flower. TIk 
following extract from Mr, Armstrong's book is interesting : — 
"To them she was always Euancondit — the pure white little 
flower of the hills. It was the native* name of a little, rare. 
while waxflmver that grew in small sprays in the gullies and 
gulches of the mountains, and this name they (i.e., the blacks) 
applied affectionately to her as characteristic of her appearance 
and manner, They knew hex real name was Katie, but: never 
called her by it. To them she was always the little white 
flower of the mountains — Euancondit." — E. E- P. 

Alpine Orchids.— At the February meeting of the Club Mr, 
A, J. Tadgell exhibited a number of Alpine plants he had 
recently collected uu Mount Bogoag, Victoria's highest 
mountain, at an elevation of 5,800 to 6.400 feet. Among them 
were several orchids. Dr. Rogers,- uf Adelaide, to whom 
duplicate specimens wet* sent, writes as follows ; — "The Mount 
Bogong orchids proved exceedingly interesting. Although 
many of the specimens carried badly, I was able to determine 
several of the Prasophyllums without difficulty. In additiun 
to Thciymiira imiosa and Chilughiits Gmmn your pared con- 
tained examples of Prasophylhtm Suitonii (the connate sepals 
variety), and P Frenchii, var. Tadgellianum. 1 am inclined to 
think that tire latter should rank as a distinct species." 

Macquajue Island. — In July, rgiS, a somewhat spirited 
discussion took place at a meeting of the Field Naturalists' Quo 
With regard to the bird life of Macquanc Island, a desolate 
speck in the Southern Ocean, about goo miles to the south-cast 
of Tasmania, and under the control of that State. In the 
Papers and Proceedings f/ the Royal Society 0/ Tasmania for 
1922 Sir Douglas Mawson, Kt.B., D,Sc,, O.B.E., gives sonic 
account of the island, and discusses its animal and bud popula- 
tion, illustrated by a map and several plates. He comes to the 
conclusion that the best use that can be made of the island is 
to proclaim it a "National Faunal Reserve." Some idea of 
the quantity of life oil thv island is given by the fact that 
during an average season 700 sea-elephants and .300.000 Royal 
Penguins are killed and the oil extracted from their bodies, but 
this terrible slaughter* is having its effect on the rookeries, hence 
the desirability making the island a strict sanctuary, more 
especially in view of the face that the revenue derived from all 
this butchery is only about £20 per annum. 

With the next issue of this magazine (May, 1923) it enters on 
its fortieth year and must be considered quite aged as such 
publications go, especially in Australia. The committee of the 
Club has had under consideration for some time the possibility 
of making the magazine more useful and more attractive even 
than it ha> been, and with that view it is piorjosed to enlarge 
the publication regularly to twenty-four pages by including 
special sections for notes (with illustrations) about birds, insects! 
pond-life, &c, dec. To keep these sections going depends al- 
most entirely tni the. members of. the Club No editor, whoever 
he may be. can provide pages of notes of a readable nature 
unless the facts are furnished to him by reliable witnesses. It 
therefore falls upon the shoulders of every rncmher of the Club 
to do his or her bit in carrying out the desire of the committee.